OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and immunovirological outcomes among naive patients with advanced HIV presentation starting an antiretroviral regimen in real-life settings. METHODS: This was a multicentre, prospective cohort study. We included all treatment-naive adults with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ T cell count < 200 cells/mm3or presence of an AIDS-defining illness) who started therapy between 2010 and 2020. The main outcomes were mortality, virological effectiveness (percentage of patients with viral load of ≤50 copies/mL) and immune restoration (percentage of patients with CD4+ T cell count above 350 cells/mm3). Competing risk analysis and Cox proportional models were performed. A propensity score-matching procedure was applied to assess the impact of the antiretroviral regimen. RESULTS: We included 1594 patients with advanced HIV disease [median CD4+T cell count of 81 cells/mm3and 371 (23.3%) with AIDS-defining illness] and with a median follow-up of 4.44 years. The most common ART used was an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) regimen (46.9%), followed by PI (35.7%) and NNRTI (17.4%), with adjusted mortality rates at 3 years of 3.1% (95% CI 1.8%-4.3%), 4.7% (95% CI 2.2%-7.1%) and 7.6% (95% CI 5.4%-9.7%) (P = 0.001), respectively. Factors associated with increased mortality included older age and history of injection drug use, whilst treatment with an InSTI regimen was a protective factor [HR 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.9)]. A sensitivity analysis with propensity score procedure confirms these results. Patients who started an InSTI achieved viral suppression and CD4+ T cell count above 350 cells/mm3significantly earlier. CONCLUSIONS: In this large real-life prospective cohort study, a significant lower mortality, earlier viral suppression and earlier immune reconstitution were observed among patients with advanced HIV disease treated with InSTIs.
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