Context Little is known about long-term health outcomes in phenotypic females with 46,XY disorders of sex development (XY females), and the socioeconomic profile has not been described in detail. Objective To describe morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic status in XY females in a comparison to the general population. Design Nationwide registry study with complete follow-up. Setting Uniform public health care system. Participants A total of 123 XY females karyotyped in Denmark during 1960 to 2012 and a randomly selected age-matched control cohort of 12,300 females and 12,300 males from the general population. Main Outcome Measures Overall mortality and morbidity as well as cause-specific morbidity; medicine use and socioeconomics (education, income, cohabitation, motherhood, and retirement). Results Compared with female controls, overall morbidity was increased in XY females [hazard ratio (HR), 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43 to 2.08] but not when excluding diagnoses associated with the specific disorder of sex development (DSD) diagnosis or pregnancy and birth (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.93 to 1.37). Mortality was similar to controls (HR, 0.79; CI, 0.35 to 1.77). Cohabitation (HR, 0.44; CI, 0.33 to 0.58) and motherhood (HR, 0.10; CI, 0.05 to 0.18) were reduced in XY females but education (HR, 0.92; CI, 0.61 to 1.37) was similar to controls. Income was higher than among controls in the older years. Conclusions Morbidity was not increased in XY females when excluding diagnoses associated to the DSD condition per se. Judged on education and income, XY females perform well in the labor market. However, DSD seems to impact on the prospects of family life.