We investigate the compatibility of minimally coupled scalar, fermion and gauge fields with asymptotically safe quantum gravity, using nonperturbative functional renormalization group methods. We study d=4,5 and 6 dimensions and within certain approximations find that for a given number of gauge fields there is a maximal number of scalar and fermion degrees of freedom compatible with an interacting fixed point at positive Newton coupling. The bounds impose severe constraints on grand unification with fundamental Higgs scalars. Supersymmetry and universal extra dimensions are also generally disfavored. The standard model and its extensions accommodating right-handed neutrinos, the axion and dark-matter models with a single scalar are compatible with a fixed point.