PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize clinical management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and discuss recent advances in the field.
RECENT FINDINGS: NMIBC remains a common and expensive clinical entity. Prevention, early detection, and risk-adapted treatment are the mainstays of clinical management, all of which may improve as a result of recent research. Photodynamic diagnosis has demonstrated improved detection of nascent disease, and specific clinical scenarios have been identified in which photodynamic diagnosis may improve clinical outcomes. New intravesical chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents challenge our current paradigm for intermediate/high-risk NMIBC and may delay need for cystectomy after bacillus Calmette-Guerin failure. Progress in risk stratification increasingly permits individualized management regimens for NMIBC.
SUMMARY: NMIBC includes many heterogeneous disease states with a variety of clinical behaviors that may evolve over time. Improved detection and risk stratification promise assignment of the optimal treatment option for an individual patient at a given time.