Lung Ultrasound to Phenotype Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction in Lung Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Observational Study

Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Christian B Laursen, Mikkel Højlund, Thomas Kromann Lund, Klaus Nielsen Jeschke, Martin Iversen, Anna Kalhauge, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Jørn Carlsen, Michael Perch, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Hans Henrik Lawaetz Schultz

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BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) are two distinct phenotypes of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. Contrary to BOS, RAS can radiologically present with a pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) pattern. This study investigates lung ultrasound (LUS) to identify potential surrogate markers of PPFE in order to distinguish CLAD phenotype RAS from BOS.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study performed at a National Lung Transplantation Center during June 2016 to December 2017. Patients were examined with LUS and high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT).

RESULTS: Twenty-five CLAD patients (72% males, median age of 54 years) were included, corresponding to 19/6 BOS/RAS patients. LUS-identified pleural thickening was more pronounced in RAS vs. BOS patients (5.6 vs. 2.9 mm) compatible with PPFE on HRCT. LUS-identified pleural thickening as an indicator of PPFE in RAS patients' upper lobes showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 54-100%), specificity of 100% (95% CI; 82-100%), PPV of 100% (95% CI; 54-100%), and NPV of 100% (95% CI; 82-100%).

CONCLUSION: Apical pleural thickening detected by LUS and compatible with PPFE on HRCT separates RAS from BOS in patients with CLAD. We propose LUS as a supplementary tool for initial CLAD phenotyping.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer1078
TidsskriftJournal of Clinical Medicine
Vol/bind10
Udgave nummer5
Antal sider14
ISSN2077-0383
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 5. mar. 2021

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