Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje, Katharina Maria Main, Ida Maria Schmidt, Malene Boas, Tina K Jensen, Philippe Grandjean, Niels E Skakkebaek, Helle Raun Andersen

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Vol/bind10
Sider (fra-til)79
ISSN1476-069X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2011

Fingeraftryk

Pesticides
Adipose Tissue
Prospective Studies
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Skin
Smoking
Mothers
Working Women
Endocrine Disruptors
Maternal Exposure
Occupational Exposure
Growth
Gestational Age
Pregnant Women
Linear Models
Regression Analysis
Weights and Measures

Citer dette

@article{010d63e11f6d4f258d8bfea033c73f14,
title = "Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study",
abstract = "ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173g (-322; -23), -4.8{\%} (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139g (-272; -6), -3.6{\%} (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95{\%} CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8{\%} (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9{\%} (95{\%} CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1{\%} (95{\%} CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy.",
author = "Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje and Main, {Katharina Maria} and Schmidt, {Ida Maria} and Malene Boas and Jensen, {Tina K} and Philippe Grandjean and Skakkebaek, {Niels E} and Andersen, {Helle Raun}",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1186/1476-069X-10-79",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "79",
journal = "Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source",
issn = "1476-069X",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study. / Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Boas, Malene; Jensen, Tina K; Grandjean, Philippe; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersen, Helle Raun.

I: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, Bind 10, 2011, s. 79.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

AU - Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

AU - Main, Katharina Maria

AU - Schmidt, Ida Maria

AU - Boas, Malene

AU - Jensen, Tina K

AU - Grandjean, Philippe

AU - Skakkebaek, Niels E

AU - Andersen, Helle Raun

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy.

AB - ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy.

U2 - 10.1186/1476-069X-10-79

DO - 10.1186/1476-069X-10-79

M3 - Journal article

VL - 10

SP - 79

JO - Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source

JF - Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source

SN - 1476-069X

ER -