Background and objectives: The most efficient long-term treatment strategy for achalasia has yet to be established. This study compared the long-term results (≥ 10 years) after either pneumatic dilatations or laparoscopic myotomy using treatment failure as the primary outcome. Secondary objectives were; the frequency and degree of dysphagia and effects on health-related quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods: Out of the 53 patients with achalasia who were initially randomized to either laparoscopic myotomy with a posterior partial fundoplication (LM) or repetitive pneumatic dilatation (PD), 43 remained for scrutiny after a median observation period of 170 months (LM; n = 20 and PD; n = 23). Results: At the follow-up of 60 months, 10 patients (36%) in the PD group and two patients (8%) in the LM group were classified as treatment failures (p = 0.016). At the latest follow-up time point (≥ 10 years), the corresponding numbers were 13 (57%) and 4 (20%), respectively. The Kaplan–Meier analysis of the cumulative incidence of treatment failure revealed a significant advantage of LM over the dilatation strategy (p = 0.036)). QoL assessed by the generic instrument PGWB and the more disease-specific instrument GSRS revealed scores which were similar in the two study groups with no obvious changes over time. Reflux was better controlled in the LM group (p = 0.02 regarding PPI consumption). Conclusions: After more than a decade of follow-up, laparoscopic myotomy reinforces its superiority over repetitive pneumatic dilatation treatment strategy in the management of newly diagnosed achalasia.