PURPOSE: The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy includes information from >200 000 patients who attends diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening in Denmark. Screening of patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes is often performed by practicing ophthalmologists, while patients with type 1 and complicated type 2 diabetes attends screening at hospitals. We performed a clinical reliability study of retinal images from Danish screening facilities to explore the inter-grader agreement between the primary screening ophthalmologist and a blinded, certified grader.

METHODS: Invitations to participate were sent to screening facilities across Denmark. The primary grader uploaded fundus photographs with information on estimated level of DR (International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy scale as 0 [no DR], 1-3 [mild, moderate or severe nonproliferative DR {NPDR}], or 4 [proliferative DR {PDR}]), region of screening, image style, and screening facility. Images were then regraded by a blinded, certified, secondary grader. Weighted kappa analysis was performed to evaluate agreement.

RESULTS: Fundus photographs from 230 patients (458 eyes) were received from practicing ophthalmologists (52.6%) and hospital-based grading centres (47.4%) from all Danish regions. Reported levels of DR by the primary graders were 66.8%, 12.2%, 13.1%, 1.3% and 5.5% for DR levels 0-4. The overall agreement between primary and secondary graders was 93% (κ = 0.83). Based on screening facility agreement was 96% (κ = 0.89) and 90% (κ = 0.76) for practicing ophthalmologists and hospital-based graders.

CONCLUSION: In this nationwide study, we observed a high overall inter-grader agreement and based on this, it is reasonable to assume that reported DR gradings in the screening programme in Denmark, accurately reflect the truth.

TidsskriftActa Ophthalmologica
Udgave nummer7
Sider (fra-til)783-788
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2023


Dyk ned i forskningsemnerne om 'Inter-grader reliability in the Danish screening programme for diabetic retinopathy'. Sammen danner de et unikt fingeraftryk.