Independent radiation of snailfishes into the hadal zone confirmed by Paraliparis selti sp. nov. (Perciformes: Liparidae) from the Atacama Trench, SE Pacific

Thomas D. Linley*, Mackenzie E. Gerringer, Heather Ritchie, Johanna N.J. Weston, Amy Scott-Murray, Vincent Fernandez, Jhoann Canto-Hernández, Frank Wenzhöfer, Ronnie N. Glud, Alan J. Jamieson

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Abstract

Snailfishes are among the most rapidly radiating families of marine fishes, resulting in a global distribution from the coastal intertidal to deep subduction trenches. The true diversity and distribution of deep-water snailfishes, particularly at hadal depths (>6000 m) and in the Southern Hemisphere, remain uncertain due to the rarity of samples. Here, we present the snailfish diversity at near-hadal and hadal depths in the Atacama Trench, which runs along the southwest coast of South America. Using free-fall baited cameras and traps, we documented at least three species of hadal snailfishes between 5920 and 7608 m based on distinct morphologies. One snailfish specimen was recovered from 6714 m, which we describe herein as Paraliparis selti sp. nov., based on a combined morphological and molecular taxonomic approach (16S, COI, and Cyt-b). Paraliparis selti sp. nov. is morphologically distinct from described snailfishes due to a combination of high number of; vertebrae (65) particularly the abdominal vertebrae (12), dorsal fin rays (60), anal fin rays (52), and caudal fin rays (8); comparatively low number of pectoral fin rays (18) which forms a deep notch with two widely spaced non-rudimentary rays. Micro-CT was used to minimise dissection of the specimen and to provide a digital holotype. Paraliparis selti sp. nov. highlights the importance of the Liparidae at hadal depths and provides evidence for at least two independent radiations of snailfishes into the hadal zone.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer56
TidsskriftMarine Biodiversity
Vol/bind52
Udgave nummer5
ISSN1867-1616
DOI
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Advanced European Research Council grant HADES-ERC “Benthic diagenesis and microbiology of hadal trenches” grant (agreement number 669947) awarded to Ronnie N Glud (University of Southern Denmark). Ship time provided by BMBF, Germany.

Funding Information:
The holotype was obtained during the RV Sonne cruise SO261 (ship time provided by BMBF, Germany). We thank the captain, crew, and scientific personnel, specifically Heather Stewart (BGS) for their support in this work. The expedition was part of the HADES-ERC Advanced grant “Benthic diagenesis and microbiology of hadal trenches” grant (agreement number 669947) awarded to Ronnie N Glud (University of Southern Denmark). We thank Osvaldo Ulloa of the Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción (IMO-UdeC, Chile) for, on behalf of Chile, loaning us the specimen from their waters so that we may describe it. Thank you to Professor Rob Upstill-Goddard for travel funds. We thank Katherine Maslenikov (Burke Museum, University of Washington) for consultation on visualizing radials. We thank our reviewers for their time to greatly enhance this work through their detailed and constructive comments. Regarding access to comparative material, we are grateful to James Maclaine, Senior curator of fishes at the Natural History Museum, London; Marcus Anders Krag and Peter Rask Møller of the Natural History Museum of Denmark. We thank Natalia Chernova of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Sandra Raredon and Jeff Williams of the Smithsonian Institution for photographs, x-ray, and discussion of types when they were not possible to view in person. The global network of natural history museums is an invaluable scientific resource. This work would not be possible without such places, both as repositories of specimens and highly talented people.

Funding Information:
The holotype was obtained during the RV Sonne cruise SO261 (ship time provided by BMBF, Germany). We thank the captain, crew, and scientific personnel, specifically Heather Stewart (BGS) for their support in this work. The expedition was part of the HADES-ERC Advanced grant “Benthic diagenesis and microbiology of hadal trenches” grant (agreement number 669947) awarded to Ronnie N Glud (University of Southern Denmark). We thank Osvaldo Ulloa of the Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción (IMO-UdeC, Chile) for, on behalf of Chile, loaning us the specimen from their waters so that we may describe it. Thank you to Professor Rob Upstill-Goddard for travel funds. We thank Katherine Maslenikov (Burke Museum, University of Washington) for consultation on visualizing radials. We thank our reviewers for their time to greatly enhance this work through their detailed and constructive comments. Regarding access to comparative material, we are grateful to James Maclaine, Senior curator of fishes at the Natural History Museum, London; Marcus Anders Krag and Peter Rask Møller of the Natural History Museum of Denmark. We thank Natalia Chernova of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Sandra Raredon and Jeff Williams of the Smithsonian Institution for photographs, x-ray, and discussion of types when they were not possible to view in person. The global network of natural history museums is an invaluable scientific resource. This work would not be possible without such places, both as repositories of specimens and highly talented people.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

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