Bone marrow (BM) fibrosis is a potential side effect of thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA) treatment. We aimed to investigate stromal seromarker profiles and growth factors in order to elucidate pathogenic and dynamic aspects of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)-related BM fibrosis before and during TPO-RA treatment. Connective tissue metabolites [procollagen I and III peptides (PINP/PIIINP); hyaluronan (HYA), C-terminal-telopeptide (ICTP), and fibrosis-related growth factors (transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), HGF, basic fibroblast growth factor)] were measured in blood samples acquired before initiation of TPO-RA and subsequently at 6-month intervals for up to 2 years. BM fibrosis was graded MF-0 in 8 (18%), MF-1 30 (65%), and MF-2 8 (18%) in the last available BM biopsy. In the 21 patients having more than one biopsy, the grade of fibrosis from the first to the last available biopsy decreased in 2 (10%), remained unchanged in 15 (71%), and increased in 4 (19%). Pretreatment levels of PIIINP, PINP, ICTP, and HYA were significantly increased in ITP versus controls. PINP, PIIINP, and HYA decreased on TPO-RA; ICTP remained unchanged. PINP:ICTP was lower before and during treatment compared to controls. Pretreatment, TGF-beta was lower than in controls; HGF exhibited the opposite pattern. HYA, ICTP, and TGF-beta tended to increase while PINP and platelet-derived growth factor tended to decrease with increasing fibrosis grade. In conclusion, ITP is associated with deranged patterns of extracellular matrix seromarkers and growth factors, indicating that BM stromal remodeling is enhanced. During TPO-RA treatment for up to 2 years, this profile was partially reversed while mild BM reticulin fibrosis was still present in the majority of patients. These observations likely reflect a BM injury by autoimmunity that is modified by TPO-RA.