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Objective: To investigate associations between maternal testosterone status and offspring birth anthropometrics. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: University Hospital. Population: 1486 mother–child dyads from Odense Child Cohort. Methods: Maternal blood samples were collected at gestational weeks 27–30 and free testosterone (FT) levels were calculated using the Vermeulen equation from total testosterone (TT) analysed by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin. Associations between FT or TT levels and birth anthropometrics were analysed with multiple linear regression models according to offspring sex with adjustment for maternal age, parity, smoking and educational level. Analyses were repeated with polycystic ovary syndrome as exposure for offspring birth anthropometrics. Main outcome measures: Offspring birth weight (BW), birth length, abdominal and head circumferences. Results: Maternal mean (SD) age was 30.2 (4.5) years and pre-pregnancy body mass index was 23.5 (5.3) kg/m2. In boys (n = 787), higher FT was associated with lower birth weight (adjusted doubling constant = −65.53, P = 0.010), shorter birth length (adjusted doubling constant = −0.43, P < 0.001), and lower abdominal circumference (adjusted doubling constant = −0.39, P < 0.001); Higher TT was associated with lower abdominal circumference (adjusted doubling constant = −0.25, P = 0.028). In girls, no associations were found between maternal FT or TT and offspring anthropometrics. Conclusions: Higher maternal free testosterone exposure was linked to reduced birth weight, length and abdominal circumference in boys, whereas girls were not susceptible to maternal testosterone exposure.

TidsskriftBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)36-45
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2024

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The study was funded by the Danish Foundation for Scientific Innovation and Technology (09–067180), the Ronald McDonald Children Foundation, Odense University Hospital, the Region of Southern Denmark, University of Southern Denmark, Odense Municipality, the Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, the Danish Council for Strategic Research; the Danish Programme Commission on Health, Food and Welfare (2101–08‐ 0058), OPEN Patient data Exploratory Network (OPEN), Novo Nordisk Foundation (grant no. NNF15OC00017734), the Danish Council for Independent Research, and the Foundation for research collaboration between Rigshospitalet and Odense University Hospital, the Health Foundation (Helsefonden), the National Board of Social Services and Lundbeckfonden (F‐61171‐19‐27).


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