Heart Rate, Autonomic Function, and Future Changes in Glucose Metabolism in Individuals Without Diabetes

The Whitehall II Cohort Study

Christian Stevns Hansen*, Kristine Færch, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Marek Malik, Daniel R. Witte, Eric J. Brunner, Adam G. Tabák, Mika Kivimäki, Dorte Vistisen

*Kontaktforfatter for dette arbejde

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Resumé

OBJECTIVE Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but the temporality of this association remains unclear in individuals without diabetes. We investigated the association of autonomic function with 5-year changes in glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analyses were based on 9,000 person-examinations for 3,631 participants without diabetes in the Whitehall II cohort. Measures of autonomic function included 5-min resting heart rate and six heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Associations between baseline autonomic function measures and 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, serum insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [ISI 0120] and HOMA of insulin sensitivity), and b-cell function (HOMA of b-cell function) were estimated in models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, metabolic factors, and medication. RESULTS A 10-bpm higher resting heart rate was associated with 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0120 of 3.3% change (95% CI 1.8; 4.8), P < 0.001; 3.3% change (1.3; 5.3), P = 0.001; and 21.4% change (22.4; 20.3), P = 0.009, respectively. In models adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, higher baseline values of several HRV indices were associated with a 5-year decrease in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0–120. However, significance was lost by full adjustment. A majority of HRV indices exhibited a trend toward higher values being associated with lower insulin levels and higher insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Higher resting heart rate in individuals without diabetes is associated with future unfavorable changes in insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Associations may be mediated via autonomic function; however, results are inconclusive. Resting heart rate may be a risk marker for future pathophysiological changes in glucose metabolism.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDiabetes Care
Vol/bind42
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)867-874
ISSN0149-5992
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2019

Fingeraftryk

Cohort Studies
Insulin Resistance
Insulin
Fasting
Social Adjustment
antineoplaston A10
Serum

Citer dette

Hansen, Christian Stevns ; Færch, Kristine ; Jørgensen, Marit Eika ; Malik, Marek ; Witte, Daniel R. ; Brunner, Eric J. ; Tabák, Adam G. ; Kivimäki, Mika ; Vistisen, Dorte. / Heart Rate, Autonomic Function, and Future Changes in Glucose Metabolism in Individuals Without Diabetes : The Whitehall II Cohort Study. I: Diabetes Care. 2019 ; Bind 42, Nr. 5. s. 867-874.
@article{2419a8276da14a0e9c6f8caa632c69f8,
title = "Heart Rate, Autonomic Function, and Future Changes in Glucose Metabolism in Individuals Without Diabetes: The Whitehall II Cohort Study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but the temporality of this association remains unclear in individuals without diabetes. We investigated the association of autonomic function with 5-year changes in glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analyses were based on 9,000 person-examinations for 3,631 participants without diabetes in the Whitehall II cohort. Measures of autonomic function included 5-min resting heart rate and six heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Associations between baseline autonomic function measures and 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, serum insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [ISI 0– 120] and HOMA of insulin sensitivity), and b-cell function (HOMA of b-cell function) were estimated in models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, metabolic factors, and medication. RESULTS A 10-bpm higher resting heart rate was associated with 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0– 120 of 3.3{\%} change (95{\%} CI 1.8; 4.8), P < 0.001; 3.3{\%} change (1.3; 5.3), P = 0.001; and 21.4{\%} change (22.4; 20.3), P = 0.009, respectively. In models adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, higher baseline values of several HRV indices were associated with a 5-year decrease in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0–120. However, significance was lost by full adjustment. A majority of HRV indices exhibited a trend toward higher values being associated with lower insulin levels and higher insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Higher resting heart rate in individuals without diabetes is associated with future unfavorable changes in insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Associations may be mediated via autonomic function; however, results are inconclusive. Resting heart rate may be a risk marker for future pathophysiological changes in glucose metabolism.",
author = "Hansen, {Christian Stevns} and Kristine F{\ae}rch and J{\o}rgensen, {Marit Eika} and Marek Malik and Witte, {Daniel R.} and Brunner, {Eric J.} and Tab{\'a}k, {Adam G.} and Mika Kivim{\"a}ki and Dorte Vistisen",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
doi = "10.2337/dc18-1838",
language = "English",
volume = "42",
pages = "867--874",
journal = "Diabetes Care",
issn = "0149-5992",
publisher = "American Diabetes Association",
number = "5",

}

Hansen, CS, Færch, K, Jørgensen, ME, Malik, M, Witte, DR, Brunner, EJ, Tabák, AG, Kivimäki, M & Vistisen, D 2019, 'Heart Rate, Autonomic Function, and Future Changes in Glucose Metabolism in Individuals Without Diabetes: The Whitehall II Cohort Study', Diabetes Care, bind 42, nr. 5, s. 867-874. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-1838

Heart Rate, Autonomic Function, and Future Changes in Glucose Metabolism in Individuals Without Diabetes : The Whitehall II Cohort Study. / Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Kristine; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Malik, Marek; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Tabák, Adam G.; Kivimäki, Mika; Vistisen, Dorte.

I: Diabetes Care, Bind 42, Nr. 5, 05.2019, s. 867-874.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heart Rate, Autonomic Function, and Future Changes in Glucose Metabolism in Individuals Without Diabetes

T2 - The Whitehall II Cohort Study

AU - Hansen, Christian Stevns

AU - Færch, Kristine

AU - Jørgensen, Marit Eika

AU - Malik, Marek

AU - Witte, Daniel R.

AU - Brunner, Eric J.

AU - Tabák, Adam G.

AU - Kivimäki, Mika

AU - Vistisen, Dorte

PY - 2019/5

Y1 - 2019/5

N2 - OBJECTIVE Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but the temporality of this association remains unclear in individuals without diabetes. We investigated the association of autonomic function with 5-year changes in glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analyses were based on 9,000 person-examinations for 3,631 participants without diabetes in the Whitehall II cohort. Measures of autonomic function included 5-min resting heart rate and six heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Associations between baseline autonomic function measures and 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, serum insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [ISI 0– 120] and HOMA of insulin sensitivity), and b-cell function (HOMA of b-cell function) were estimated in models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, metabolic factors, and medication. RESULTS A 10-bpm higher resting heart rate was associated with 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0– 120 of 3.3% change (95% CI 1.8; 4.8), P < 0.001; 3.3% change (1.3; 5.3), P = 0.001; and 21.4% change (22.4; 20.3), P = 0.009, respectively. In models adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, higher baseline values of several HRV indices were associated with a 5-year decrease in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0–120. However, significance was lost by full adjustment. A majority of HRV indices exhibited a trend toward higher values being associated with lower insulin levels and higher insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Higher resting heart rate in individuals without diabetes is associated with future unfavorable changes in insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Associations may be mediated via autonomic function; however, results are inconclusive. Resting heart rate may be a risk marker for future pathophysiological changes in glucose metabolism.

AB - OBJECTIVE Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, but the temporality of this association remains unclear in individuals without diabetes. We investigated the association of autonomic function with 5-year changes in glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Analyses were based on 9,000 person-examinations for 3,631 participants without diabetes in the Whitehall II cohort. Measures of autonomic function included 5-min resting heart rate and six heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Associations between baseline autonomic function measures and 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, serum insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [ISI 0– 120] and HOMA of insulin sensitivity), and b-cell function (HOMA of b-cell function) were estimated in models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, metabolic factors, and medication. RESULTS A 10-bpm higher resting heart rate was associated with 5-year changes in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0– 120 of 3.3% change (95% CI 1.8; 4.8), P < 0.001; 3.3% change (1.3; 5.3), P = 0.001; and 21.4% change (22.4; 20.3), P = 0.009, respectively. In models adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, higher baseline values of several HRV indices were associated with a 5-year decrease in fasting and 2-h insulin and ISI 0–120. However, significance was lost by full adjustment. A majority of HRV indices exhibited a trend toward higher values being associated with lower insulin levels and higher insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS Higher resting heart rate in individuals without diabetes is associated with future unfavorable changes in insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Associations may be mediated via autonomic function; however, results are inconclusive. Resting heart rate may be a risk marker for future pathophysiological changes in glucose metabolism.

U2 - 10.2337/dc18-1838

DO - 10.2337/dc18-1838

M3 - Journal article

VL - 42

SP - 867

EP - 874

JO - Diabetes Care

JF - Diabetes Care

SN - 0149-5992

IS - 5

ER -