Harnessing ultraconfined graphene plasmons to probe the electrodynamics of superconductors

A. T. Costa, P. A.D. Gonçalves, D. N. Basov, Frank H.L. Koppens, N. Asger Mortensen*, N. M.R. Peres

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We show that the Higgs mode of a superconductor, which is usually challenging to observe by far-field optics, can be made clearly visible using near-field optics by harnessing ultraconfined graphene plasmons. As near-field sources we investigate two examples: graphene plasmons and quantum emitters. In both cases the coupling to the Higgs mode is clearly visible. In the case of the graphene plasmons, the coupling is signaled by a clear anticrossing stemming from the interaction of graphene plasmons with the Higgs mode of the superconductor. In the case of the quantum emitters, the Higgs mode is observable through the Purcell effect. When combining the superconductor, graphene, and the quantum emitters, a number of experimental knobs become available for unveiling and studying the electrodynamics of superconductors.

TidsskriftProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Udgave nummer4
StatusUdgivet - 26. jan. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. N.M.R.P. acknowledges support from the European Commission through the project “Graphene-Driven Revolutions in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Beyond” (881603–Core 3) and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) in the framework of the Strategic Financing UID/FIS/04650/2019. N.M.R.P. also acknowledges COMPETE2020, PORTUGAL2020, Fundo Europeu de Desen-volvimento Regional (FEDER), and the Portuguese FCT through Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028114. N.A.M. is a VILLUM Investigator supported by VILLUM FONDEN (Grant 16498) and Independent Research Fund Denmark

Funding Information:
(Grant 7026-00117B). The Center for Nano Optics is financially supported by the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) (SDU 2020 funding). The Center for Nanostructured Graphene is sponsored by the Danish National Research Foundation (Project DNRF103). Work on hybrid heterostructures at Columbia was supported entirely by the Center on Precision-Assembled Quantum Materials, funded through the US National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (Award DMR-2011738). D.N.B. is Moore Investigator in Quantum Materials, Emergent Phenomena in Quantum Systems (EPiQS) 9455. D.N.B. is the Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellow ONR-VB: N00014-19-1-2630. F.H.L.K. acknowledges financial support from the Government of Catalonia trough the SGR grant and from the Span-

Funding Information:
ish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through the Severo Ochoa Program for Centers of Excellence in Research & Development (SEV-2015-0522); support by Fundació Cellex Barcelona, Generalitat de Catalunya through the Centres de Recerca de Catalunya (CERCA) program; and the MINECO grants Plan Nacional (FIS2016-81044-P) and the Agency for Management of University and Research Grants 2017 SGR 1656. Furthermore, the research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program under the Graphene Flagship Grants 785219 (Core 2) and 881603 (Core 3) and the Quantum Flagship Grant 820378. This work was also supported by the European Research Council (ERC) TOPONANOP under Grant 726001.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


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