The papers included in the SI "Innovation in perihperies and borderlands" highlight the complexity of the connection between innovation and geography. Whilst certain innovation processes seem to be facilitated by cities and by urban proximity, others occur in peripheral and border regions. The ‘slowness’ of peripheral innovation – in particular its heightened reliance on internal capacities, local re-sources and technical information – is confirmed, as is the importance of external connections with actors in other peripheral and border regions as well as with actors in cities. Certain types of innovation, for example exaptation, seem to be more prevalent in peripheral regions where adaptation is not only a necessity but can also be an opportunity. This collection of papers cannot offer any definitive answer to the question of how innovation occurs in peripheries and borderlands: however, not only does it confirm that innovation processes develop in these regions, often in ways that differ from urban regions, it provides a framework for further exploring the question as well as empirical pointers about what to look for. Further studies could build on the papers presented here and elaborate in greater detail: Longer time-series data and larger sets of control variables to establish and confirm causes and effects of innovation in peripheries and borderlands; Mixed-methods research to move forward the dichotomy of the results based on qualitative case studies (providing snapshots) and quantitative samples (providing a general picture); Formally evaluate the impacts of (regional) policies in facilitating in-novation in rural regions; Go beyond the focus on developed countries and explore the patterns of innovation in rural regions of the Global South.