The purpose of the study was to investigate which physiological parameters would most accurately predict a 6-min, all-out, double-poling (DP) performance in recreational cross-country skiers. Twelve male recreational cross-country skiers performed tests consisting of three series lasting 10 s, one lasting 60 s, plus a 6-min, all-out, DP performance test to estimate mean and peak power output. On a separate day, gross mechanical efficiency (GE) was estimated from a 10-min, submaximal, DP test and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) was estimated from an incremental treadmill running test. Power was measured after each stroke from the acceleration and deceleration of the flywheel that induced the friction on the ergometer. The power was shown to the skier on a small computer placed on the ergometer. A multivariable correlation analysis showed that GE most strongly predicted 6-min DP performance (r = 0.79) and interestingly, neither DP VO2 max, nor treadmill-running VO2 max, correlated with 6-min DP performance. In conclusion, GE correlated most strongly with 6-min DP performance and GE at the ski ergometer was estimated to be 6.4 ± 1.1%. It is suggested that recreational cross-country skiers focus on skiing technique to improve gross mechanical efficiency during intense DP.