Genotype-histotype-phenotype correlations in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

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Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH) of pancreatic origin includes congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), insulinoma, insulinomatosis, and adult-onset non-insulinoma persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome (NI-PHHS). In this review, we describe the genotype-histotype-phenotype correlations in HH and their therapeutic implications. CHI can occur from birth or later on in life. Histologically, diffuse CHI shows diffuse beta cell hypertrophy with a few giant nuclei per islet of Langerhans, most frequently caused by loss-of-function mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11. Focal CHI is histologically characterized by focal adenomatous hyperplasia consisting of confluent hyperplastic islets, caused by a paternal ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutation combined with paternal uniparental disomy of 11p15. CHI in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by mosaic changes in the imprinting region 11p15.4-11p15.5, leading to segmental or diffuse overgrowth of endocrine tissue in the pancreas. Morphological mosaicism of pancreatic islets is characterized by occurence of hyperplastic (type 1) islets in one or a few lobules and small (type 2) islets in the entire pancreas. Other rare genetic causes of CHI show less characteristic or unspecific histology. HH with a predominant adult onset includes insulinomas, which are pancreatic insulin-producing endocrine neoplasms, in some cases with metastatic potential. Insulinomas occur sporadically or as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 due to MEN1 mutations. MAFA mutations may histologically lead to insulinomatosis with insulin-producing neuroendocrine microadenomas or neuroendocrine neoplasms. NI-PHHS is mainly seen in adults and shows slight histological changes in some patients, which have been defined as major and minor criteria. The genetic cause is unknown in most cases. The diagnosis of HH, as defined by genetic, histological, and phenotypic features, has important implications for patient management and outcome.

TidsskriftHistology and Histopathology
Sider (fra-til)18709
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 12. jan. 2024

Bibliografisk note

©The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons CC-BY International License.


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