Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study

Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Yoon-Mi Hur, Yoshie Yokoyama, Chika Honda, Jacob vB Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Syuichi Ooki, Sari Aaltonen, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Andreas Busjahn, Christian Kandler, Kimberly J Saudino, Kerry L Jang, Wendy Cozen, Amie E HwangThomas M Mack, Wenjing Gao, Canqing Yu, Liming Li, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Kaare Christensen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth Jf Loos, Kauko Heikkilä, Jane Wardle, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Mingguang He, Xiaohu Ding, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D'Ippolito, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Meike Bartels, Toos Cem van Beijsterveldt, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Duarte L Freitas, José Antonio Maia, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Youngsook Chong, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Per Tynelius, Paul Lichtenstein, Claire Ma Haworth, Robert Plomin, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Timothy Spector, Massimo Mangino, Genevieve Lachance, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Gonneke Willemsen, Finn Rasmussen, Jack H Goldberg, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jaakko Kaprio

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.

OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments.

DESIGN: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling.

RESULTS: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions.

CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vol/bind104
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)371-379
ISSN0002-9165
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2016

Fingeraftryk

Twin Studies
Body Mass Index
Far East
North America

Emneord

  • BMI
  • children
  • genetics
  • international comparisons
  • twins

Citer dette

Silventoinen, Karri ; Jelenkovic, Aline ; Sund, Reijo ; Hur, Yoon-Mi ; Yokoyama, Yoshie ; Honda, Chika ; Hjelmborg, Jacob vB ; Möller, Sören ; Ooki, Syuichi ; Aaltonen, Sari ; Ji, Fuling ; Ning, Feng ; Pang, Zengchang ; Rebato, Esther ; Busjahn, Andreas ; Kandler, Christian ; Saudino, Kimberly J ; Jang, Kerry L ; Cozen, Wendy ; Hwang, Amie E ; Mack, Thomas M ; Gao, Wenjing ; Yu, Canqing ; Li, Liming ; Corley, Robin P ; Huibregtse, Brooke M ; Christensen, Kaare ; Skytthe, Axel ; Kyvik, Kirsten O ; Derom, Catherine A ; Vlietinck, Robert F ; Loos, Ruth Jf ; Heikkilä, Kauko ; Wardle, Jane ; Llewellyn, Clare H ; Fisher, Abigail ; McAdams, Tom A ; Eley, Thalia C ; Gregory, Alice M ; He, Mingguang ; Ding, Xiaohu ; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten ; Beck-Nielsen, Henning ; Sodemann, Morten ; Tarnoki, Adam D ; Tarnoki, David L ; Stazi, Maria A ; Fagnani, Corrado ; D'Ippolito, Cristina ; Knafo-Noam, Ariel ; Mankuta, David ; Abramson, Lior ; Burt, S Alexandra ; Klump, Kelly L ; Silberg, Judy L ; Eaves, Lindon J ; Maes, Hermine H ; Krueger, Robert F ; McGue, Matt ; Pahlen, Shandell ; Gatz, Margaret ; Butler, David A ; Bartels, Meike ; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem ; Craig, Jeffrey M ; Saffery, Richard ; Freitas, Duarte L ; Maia, José Antonio ; Dubois, Lise ; Boivin, Michel ; Brendgen, Mara ; Dionne, Ginette ; Vitaro, Frank ; Martin, Nicholas G ; Medland, Sarah E ; Montgomery, Grant W ; Chong, Youngsook ; Swan, Gary E ; Krasnow, Ruth ; Magnusson, Patrik Ke ; Pedersen, Nancy L ; Tynelius, Per ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; Haworth, Claire Ma ; Plomin, Robert ; Bayasgalan, Gombojav ; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol ; Harden, K Paige ; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M ; Öncel, Sevgi Y ; Aliev, Fazil ; Spector, Timothy ; Mangino, Massimo ; Lachance, Genevieve ; Baker, Laura A ; Tuvblad, Catherine ; Duncan, Glen E ; Buchwald, Dedra ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Rasmussen, Finn ; Goldberg, Jack H ; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia ; Boomsma, Dorret I ; Kaprio, Jaakko. / Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study. I: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2016 ; Bind 104, Nr. 2. s. 371-379.
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title = "Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments.DESIGN: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling.RESULTS: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions.CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity.",
keywords = "Journal Article, BMI, children, genetics, international comparisons, twins",
author = "Karri Silventoinen and Aline Jelenkovic and Reijo Sund and Yoon-Mi Hur and Yoshie Yokoyama and Chika Honda and Hjelmborg, {Jacob vB} and S{\"o}ren M{\"o}ller and Syuichi Ooki and Sari Aaltonen and Fuling Ji and Feng Ning and Zengchang Pang and Esther Rebato and Andreas Busjahn and Christian Kandler and Saudino, {Kimberly J} and Jang, {Kerry L} and Wendy Cozen and Hwang, {Amie E} and Mack, {Thomas M} and Wenjing Gao and Canqing Yu and Liming Li and Corley, {Robin P} and Huibregtse, {Brooke M} and Kaare Christensen and Axel Skytthe and Kyvik, {Kirsten O} and Derom, {Catherine A} and Vlietinck, {Robert F} and Loos, {Ruth Jf} and Kauko Heikkil{\"a} and Jane Wardle and Llewellyn, {Clare H} and Abigail Fisher and McAdams, {Tom A} and Eley, {Thalia C} and Gregory, {Alice M} and Mingguang He and Xiaohu Ding and Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen and Henning Beck-Nielsen and Morten Sodemann and Tarnoki, {Adam D} and Tarnoki, {David L} and Stazi, {Maria A} and Corrado Fagnani and Cristina D'Ippolito and Ariel Knafo-Noam and David Mankuta and Lior Abramson and Burt, {S Alexandra} and Klump, {Kelly L} and Silberg, {Judy L} and Eaves, {Lindon J} and Maes, {Hermine H} and Krueger, {Robert F} and Matt McGue and Shandell Pahlen and Margaret Gatz and Butler, {David A} and Meike Bartels and {van Beijsterveldt}, {Toos Cem} and Craig, {Jeffrey M} and Richard Saffery and Freitas, {Duarte L} and Maia, {Jos{\'e} Antonio} and Lise Dubois and Michel Boivin and Mara Brendgen and Ginette Dionne and Frank Vitaro and Martin, {Nicholas G} and Medland, {Sarah E} and Montgomery, {Grant W} and Youngsook Chong and Swan, {Gary E} and Ruth Krasnow and Magnusson, {Patrik Ke} and Pedersen, {Nancy L} and Per Tynelius and Paul Lichtenstein and Haworth, {Claire Ma} and Robert Plomin and Gombojav Bayasgalan and Danshiitsoodol Narandalai and Harden, {K Paige} and Tucker-Drob, {Elliot M} and {\"O}ncel, {Sevgi Y} and Fazil Aliev and Timothy Spector and Massimo Mangino and Genevieve Lachance and Baker, {Laura A} and Catherine Tuvblad and Duncan, {Glen E} and Dedra Buchwald and Gonneke Willemsen and Finn Rasmussen and Goldberg, {Jack H} and S{\o}rensen, {Thorkild Ia} and Boomsma, {Dorret I} and Jaakko Kaprio",
note = "{\circledC} 2016 American Society for Nutrition.",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.116.130252",
language = "English",
volume = "104",
pages = "371--379",
journal = "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN",
number = "2",

}

Silventoinen, K, Jelenkovic, A, Sund, R, Hur, Y-M, Yokoyama, Y, Honda, C, Hjelmborg, JVB, Möller, S, Ooki, S, Aaltonen, S, Ji, F, Ning, F, Pang, Z, Rebato, E, Busjahn, A, Kandler, C, Saudino, KJ, Jang, KL, Cozen, W, Hwang, AE, Mack, TM, Gao, W, Yu, C, Li, L, Corley, RP, Huibregtse, BM, Christensen, K, Skytthe, A, Kyvik, KO, Derom, CA, Vlietinck, RF, Loos, RJ, Heikkilä, K, Wardle, J, Llewellyn, CH, Fisher, A, McAdams, TA, Eley, TC, Gregory, AM, He, M, Ding, X, Bjerregaard-Andersen, M, Beck-Nielsen, H, Sodemann, M, Tarnoki, AD, Tarnoki, DL, Stazi, MA, Fagnani, C, D'Ippolito, C, Knafo-Noam, A, Mankuta, D, Abramson, L, Burt, SA, Klump, KL, Silberg, JL, Eaves, LJ, Maes, HH, Krueger, RF, McGue, M, Pahlen, S, Gatz, M, Butler, DA, Bartels, M, van Beijsterveldt, TC, Craig, JM, Saffery, R, Freitas, DL, Maia, JA, Dubois, L, Boivin, M, Brendgen, M, Dionne, G, Vitaro, F, Martin, NG, Medland, SE, Montgomery, GW, Chong, Y, Swan, GE, Krasnow, R, Magnusson, PK, Pedersen, NL, Tynelius, P, Lichtenstein, P, Haworth, CM, Plomin, R, Bayasgalan, G, Narandalai, D, Harden, KP, Tucker-Drob, EM, Öncel, SY, Aliev, F, Spector, T, Mangino, M, Lachance, G, Baker, LA, Tuvblad, C, Duncan, GE, Buchwald, D, Willemsen, G, Rasmussen, F, Goldberg, JH, Sørensen, TI, Boomsma, DI & Kaprio, J 2016, 'Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study', The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, bind 104, nr. 2, s. 371-379. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.130252

Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood : an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study. / Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Honda, Chika; Hjelmborg, Jacob vB; Möller, Sören; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J; Jang, Kerry L; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Chong, Youngsook; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire Ma; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko.

I: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Bind 104, Nr. 2, 2016, s. 371-379.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood

T2 - an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study

AU - Silventoinen, Karri

AU - Jelenkovic, Aline

AU - Sund, Reijo

AU - Hur, Yoon-Mi

AU - Yokoyama, Yoshie

AU - Honda, Chika

AU - Hjelmborg, Jacob vB

AU - Möller, Sören

AU - Ooki, Syuichi

AU - Aaltonen, Sari

AU - Ji, Fuling

AU - Ning, Feng

AU - Pang, Zengchang

AU - Rebato, Esther

AU - Busjahn, Andreas

AU - Kandler, Christian

AU - Saudino, Kimberly J

AU - Jang, Kerry L

AU - Cozen, Wendy

AU - Hwang, Amie E

AU - Mack, Thomas M

AU - Gao, Wenjing

AU - Yu, Canqing

AU - Li, Liming

AU - Corley, Robin P

AU - Huibregtse, Brooke M

AU - Christensen, Kaare

AU - Skytthe, Axel

AU - Kyvik, Kirsten O

AU - Derom, Catherine A

AU - Vlietinck, Robert F

AU - Loos, Ruth Jf

AU - Heikkilä, Kauko

AU - Wardle, Jane

AU - Llewellyn, Clare H

AU - Fisher, Abigail

AU - McAdams, Tom A

AU - Eley, Thalia C

AU - Gregory, Alice M

AU - He, Mingguang

AU - Ding, Xiaohu

AU - Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten

AU - Beck-Nielsen, Henning

AU - Sodemann, Morten

AU - Tarnoki, Adam D

AU - Tarnoki, David L

AU - Stazi, Maria A

AU - Fagnani, Corrado

AU - D'Ippolito, Cristina

AU - Knafo-Noam, Ariel

AU - Mankuta, David

AU - Abramson, Lior

AU - Burt, S Alexandra

AU - Klump, Kelly L

AU - Silberg, Judy L

AU - Eaves, Lindon J

AU - Maes, Hermine H

AU - Krueger, Robert F

AU - McGue, Matt

AU - Pahlen, Shandell

AU - Gatz, Margaret

AU - Butler, David A

AU - Bartels, Meike

AU - van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem

AU - Craig, Jeffrey M

AU - Saffery, Richard

AU - Freitas, Duarte L

AU - Maia, José Antonio

AU - Dubois, Lise

AU - Boivin, Michel

AU - Brendgen, Mara

AU - Dionne, Ginette

AU - Vitaro, Frank

AU - Martin, Nicholas G

AU - Medland, Sarah E

AU - Montgomery, Grant W

AU - Chong, Youngsook

AU - Swan, Gary E

AU - Krasnow, Ruth

AU - Magnusson, Patrik Ke

AU - Pedersen, Nancy L

AU - Tynelius, Per

AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

AU - Haworth, Claire Ma

AU - Plomin, Robert

AU - Bayasgalan, Gombojav

AU - Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol

AU - Harden, K Paige

AU - Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

AU - Öncel, Sevgi Y

AU - Aliev, Fazil

AU - Spector, Timothy

AU - Mangino, Massimo

AU - Lachance, Genevieve

AU - Baker, Laura A

AU - Tuvblad, Catherine

AU - Duncan, Glen E

AU - Buchwald, Dedra

AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

AU - Rasmussen, Finn

AU - Goldberg, Jack H

AU - Sørensen, Thorkild Ia

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

N1 - © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments.DESIGN: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling.RESULTS: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions.CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity.

AB - BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments.DESIGN: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling.RESULTS: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions.CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity.

KW - Journal Article

KW - BMI

KW - children

KW - genetics

KW - international comparisons

KW - twins

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.116.130252

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.116.130252

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 27413137

VL - 104

SP - 371

EP - 379

JO - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

ER -