Squid (Loligo forbesii and Loligo vulgaris) mantles were cooked by sous vide cooking using different temperatures (46°C, 55°C, 77°C) and times (30 s, 2 min, 15 min, 1 h, 5 h, 24 h), including samples of raw tissue. Macroscopic textural properties were characterized by texture analysis (TA) conducted with Meullenet-Owens razor shear blade and compared to analysis results from differential scanning calorimetry. The collagen content of raw tissues of squid was quantified as amount of total hydroxyproline using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural changes were monitored by Raman spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering and visualized by second harmonic generation microscopy. Collagen in the squid tissue was found to be highest in arms (4.3% of total protein), then fins (3.0%), and lowest in the mantle (1.5%), the content of the mantle being very low compared to that of other species of squid. Collagen was found to be the major protein responsible for cooking loss, whereas both collagen and actin were found to be key to mechanical textural changes. A significant decreased amount of cooking loss was obtained using a lower cooking temperature of 55°C compared to 77°C, without yielding significant textural changes in most TA parameters, except for TA hardness which was significantly less reduced. An optimized sous vide cooking time and temperature around 55–77°C and 0.5–5 h deserves further investigation, preferably coupled to sensory consumer evaluation. Practical Application: The study provides knowledge about structural changes during sous vide cooking of squid mantle. The results may be translated into gastronomic use, promoting the use of an underutilized resource of delicious and nutritious protein (Loligo vulgaris and Loligo forbesii).
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
The authors and collaborators of the project gratefully acknowledge the Nordea Foundation for funding the research project “Taste for Life” (Smag for Livet) within which the present research project was carried out. The authors also wish to thank Mahesha M. Poojary for optimizing the procedure of amino acid analysis for the intended purpose. Thanks are also due to Peter Lionet Faxholm who assisted in sample preparation and Danish Molecular BioImaging Center (DaMBIC) for use of the microscopy facility. Finally, thanks to Sofie Kolind Leth for assisting in SHGM sample preparation.
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