TY - JOUR

T1 - Gas adsorption response of piezoelectrically driven microcantilever beam gas sensors

T2 - analytical, numerical, and experimental characterizations

AU - Nsubuga, Lawrence

AU - Duggen, Lars

AU - Marcondes, Tatiana Lisboa

AU - Overgaard Høegh, Simon

AU - Lofink, Fabian

AU - Meyer, Jana

AU - Rubahn, Horst-Gunter

AU - de Oliveira Hansen, Roana

PY - 2023/2

Y1 - 2023/2

N2 - This work presents an approach for the estimation of the adsorbed mass of 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) on a functionalized piezoelectrically driven microcantilever (PD-MC) sensor, using a polynomial developed from the characterization of the resonance frequency response to the known added mass. This work supplements the previous studies we carried out on the development of an electronic nose for the measurement of cadaverine in meat and fish, as a determinant of its freshness. An analytical transverse vibration analysis of a chosen microcantilever beam with given dimensions and desired resonance frequency (>10 kHz) was conducted. Since the beam is considered stepped with both geometrical and material non-uniformity, a modal solution for stepped beams, extendable to clamped-free beams of any shape and structure, is derived and used for free and forced vibration analyses of the beam. The forced vibration analysis is then used for transformation to an equivalent electrical model, to address the fact that the microcantilever is both electronically actuated and read. An analytical resonance frequency response to the mass added is obtained by adding simulated masses to the free end of the beam. Experimental verification of the resonance frequency response is carried out, by applying known masses to the microcantilever while measuring the resonance frequency response using an impedance analyzer. The obtained response is then transformed into a resonance frequency to the added mass response polynomial using a polynomial fit. The resulting polynomial is then verified for performance using different masses of cantilever functionalization solution. The functionalized cantilever is then exposed to different concentrations of cadaverine while measuring the resonance frequency and mass of cadaverine adsorbed estimated using the previously obtained polynomial. The result is that there is the possibility of using this approach to estimate the mass of cadaverine gas adsorbed on a functionalized microcantilever, but the effectiveness of this approach is highly dependent on the known masses used for the development of the response polynomial model.

AB - This work presents an approach for the estimation of the adsorbed mass of 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) on a functionalized piezoelectrically driven microcantilever (PD-MC) sensor, using a polynomial developed from the characterization of the resonance frequency response to the known added mass. This work supplements the previous studies we carried out on the development of an electronic nose for the measurement of cadaverine in meat and fish, as a determinant of its freshness. An analytical transverse vibration analysis of a chosen microcantilever beam with given dimensions and desired resonance frequency (>10 kHz) was conducted. Since the beam is considered stepped with both geometrical and material non-uniformity, a modal solution for stepped beams, extendable to clamped-free beams of any shape and structure, is derived and used for free and forced vibration analyses of the beam. The forced vibration analysis is then used for transformation to an equivalent electrical model, to address the fact that the microcantilever is both electronically actuated and read. An analytical resonance frequency response to the mass added is obtained by adding simulated masses to the free end of the beam. Experimental verification of the resonance frequency response is carried out, by applying known masses to the microcantilever while measuring the resonance frequency response using an impedance analyzer. The obtained response is then transformed into a resonance frequency to the added mass response polynomial using a polynomial fit. The resulting polynomial is then verified for performance using different masses of cantilever functionalization solution. The functionalized cantilever is then exposed to different concentrations of cadaverine while measuring the resonance frequency and mass of cadaverine adsorbed estimated using the previously obtained polynomial. The result is that there is the possibility of using this approach to estimate the mass of cadaverine gas adsorbed on a functionalized microcantilever, but the effectiveness of this approach is highly dependent on the known masses used for the development of the response polynomial model.

KW - Butterworth–Van Dyke

KW - Euler–Bernoulli beam

KW - forced vibrations

KW - gas sensing

KW - microcantilever

KW - nonlinearity compensation

KW - polynomial fit

KW - resonance frequency

U2 - 10.3390/s23031093

DO - 10.3390/s23031093

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 36772134

SN - 1424-8220

VL - 23

JO - Sensors

JF - Sensors

IS - 3

M1 - 1093

ER -