Frailty and Associated Factors among Centenarians in the 5-COOP Countries

5-COOP group

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


BACKGROUND: The global number of centenarians is still strongly growing and information about the health and healthcare needs of this segment of the population is needed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of frailty among centenarians included in a multinational study and to investigate associated factors.

METHODS: The 5-COOP study is a cross-sectional survey including 1,253 centenarians in 5 countries (Japan, France, Switzerland, Denmark, and Sweden). Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire during a face-to-face interview (73.3%), telephone interview (14.5%), or by postal questionnaire (12.2%). The 5 dimensions of the frailty phenotype (weight loss, fatigue, weakness, slow walking speed, and low level of physical activity) were assessed by using self-reported data. Factors associated with frailty criteria were investigated by using multivariate regression models.

RESULTS: Almost 95% of the participants had at least 1 frailty criterion. The overall prevalence of frailty (3 criteria or more) was 64.7% (from 51.5% in Sweden to 77.6% in Switzerland), and 32.2% of the participants had 4 or 5 criteria. The most frequent criteria were weakness (84.2%), slow walking speed (77.6%), and low level of physical activity (72.5%), followed by fatigue (43.8%) and weight loss (23.8%). Factors associated with frailty included data collection modes, country of residence, gender, living in institution, depression, dementia, disability, falls, and sensory impairments.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that reaching 100 years of age rarely goes without frailty and sheds light on factors associated with frailty at a very old age.
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)521–531
StatusUdgivet - 20. jul. 2018


  • Frail elderly
  • Functional decline
  • International comparison
  • Longevity
  • Oldest old

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