First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope results. II. EHT and multiwavelength observations, data Processing, and calibration

Kazunori Akiyama, ALBERDI ANTONIO, Walter Alef, Juan Carlos Algaba, F Richard, Keiichi Asada, Rebecca Azulay, Uwe Bach, Anne-Kathrin Baczko, David Ball, Mislav Baloković, John P. Barrett, Michi Bauböck, Bradford Benson, Dan Bintley, Lindy Blackburn, Raymond Blundell, Katherine L Bouman, Geoffrey Bower, Hope BoyceMichael Bremer, Christiaan Brinkerink, Roger Brissenden, Silke Britzen, Avery Broderick, BROGUIERE Dominique, Thomas Bronzwaer, Sandra Guadalupe Bustamante Gonzalez, Do-Young Byun, John Carlstrom, Chiara Ceccobello, Andrew Chael, Chi-kwan Chan, Koushik Chatterjee, S. Chatterjee, Ming-Tang Chen, Yongjun Chen, Xiaopeng Cheng, Ilje Cho, Pierre Christian, Nicholas Conroy, James Cordes, CRAWFORD THOMAS, Geoffrey Crew, Alejandro Cruz-Osorio, Cui (崔玉竹) Yuzhu, Jordy Davelaar, Mariafelicia De Laurentis, Roman Gold, The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

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Abstrakt

We present Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm measurements of the radio source located at the position of the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A* ), collected during the 2017 April 5–11 campaign. The observations were carried out with eight facilities at six locations across the globe. Novel calibration methods are employed to account for Sgr A* ʼs flux variability. The majority of the 1.3 mm emission arises from horizon scales, where intrinsic structural source variability is detected on timescales of minutes to hours. The effects of interstellar scattering on the image and its variability are found to be subdominant to intrinsic source structure. The calibrated visibility amplitudes, particularly the locations of the visibility minima, are broadly consistent with a blurred ring with a diameter of ∼50 μas, as determined in later works in this series. Contemporaneous multiwavelength monitoring of Sgr A* was performed at 22, 43, and 86 GHz and at near-infrared and X-ray wavelengths. Several X-ray flares from Sgr A* are detected by Chandra, one at low significance jointly with Swift on 2017 April 7 and the other at higher significance jointly with NuSTAR on 2017 April 11. The brighter April 11 flare is not observed simultaneously by the EHT but is followed by a significant increase in millimeter flux variability immediately after the X-ray outburst, indicating a likely connection in the emission physics near the event horizon. We compare Sgr A* ’s broadband flux during the EHT campaign to its historical spectral energy distribution and find that both the quiescent emission and flare emission are consistent with its long-term behavior.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
ArtikelnummerL13
TidsskriftThe Astrophysical Journal Letters
Vol/bind930
Udgave nummer2
Antal sider31
ISSN2041-8205
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 12. maj 2022

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