Financial incentives for integrated care: A scoping review and lessons for evidence-based design

Dimitar Yordanov, Anne Sophie Oxholm, Thim Prætorius, Søren Rud Kristensen

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


In response to the increasing prevalence of people with chronic conditions, healthcare systems restructure to integrate care across providers. However, many systems fail to achieve the desired outcomes. One likely explanation is lack of financial incentives for integrating care.

We aim to identify financial incentives used to promote integrated care across different types of providers for patients with common chronic conditions and assess the evidence on (cost-)effectiveness and the facilitators/barriers to their implementation.

This scoping review identifies studies published before December 2021, and includes 33 studies from the United States and the Netherlands.

We identify four types of financial incentives: shared savings, bundled payments, pay for performance, and pay for coordination. Substantial heterogeneity in the (cost-)effectiveness of these incentives exists. Key implementation barriers are a lack of infrastructure (e.g., electronic medical records, communication channels, and clinical guidelines). To facilitate integration, financial incentives should be easy to communicate and implement, and require additional financial support, IT support, training, and guidelines.

All four types of financial incentives may promote integrated care but not in all contexts. Shared savings appears to be the most promising incentive type for promoting (cost-)effective care integration with the largest number of favourable studies allowing causal interpretations. The limited evidence pool makes it hard to draw firm conclusions that are transferable across contexts.
TidsskriftHealth Policy
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2024