Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries

Maartje M Schaap, Anton E Kunst, Mall Leinsalu, Enrique Regidor, Albert Espelt, Ola Ekholm, Uwe Helmert, Jurate Klumbiene, Johan P Mackenbach

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Apr
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftSocial Science & Medicine
Vol/bind68
Udgave nummer7
Sider (fra-til)1271-8
Antal sider7
ISSN0277-9536
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1. apr. 2009

Fingeraftryk

emancipation
smoking
Smoking
Education
economics
education
age group
Age Groups
empowerment
gross domestic product
Economic Development
Emancipation
gender
Portugal
Norway
Health Surveys
England
Regression Analysis
Interviews

Emneord

  • Rygning
  • Social ulighed

Citer dette

Schaap, Maartje M ; Kunst, Anton E ; Leinsalu, Mall ; Regidor, Enrique ; Espelt, Albert ; Ekholm, Ola ; Helmert, Uwe ; Klumbiene, Jurate ; Mackenbach, Johan P. / Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries. I: Social Science & Medicine. 2009 ; Bind 68, Nr. 7. s. 1271-8.
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title = "Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries",
abstract = "Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities and economic development and women's emancipation. Data on smoking were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries. For each country, age group (25-39, 40-59 and 60+ years), educational level (4 standard levels), and cumulative ever-smoking rates were calculated as the proportion of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years who were less educated were less likely to have ever smoked in all countries, except Norway and England. The size of inequalities varied considerably between countries and reversed within three age groups. For women 25-39 years, the association of ever-smoking rates with GDP was positive, especially for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion of smoking in different ways for more and less educated women.",
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Schaap, MM, Kunst, AE, Leinsalu, M, Regidor, E, Espelt, A, Ekholm, O, Helmert, U, Klumbiene, J & Mackenbach, JP 2009, 'Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries', Social Science & Medicine, bind 68, nr. 7, s. 1271-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.01.007

Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries. / Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall; Regidor, Enrique; Espelt, Albert; Ekholm, Ola; Helmert, Uwe; Klumbiene, Jurate; Mackenbach, Johan P.

I: Social Science & Medicine, Bind 68, Nr. 7, 01.04.2009, s. 1271-8.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries

AU - Schaap, Maartje M

AU - Kunst, Anton E

AU - Leinsalu, Mall

AU - Regidor, Enrique

AU - Espelt, Albert

AU - Ekholm, Ola

AU - Helmert, Uwe

AU - Klumbiene, Jurate

AU - Mackenbach, Johan P

PY - 2009/4/1

Y1 - 2009/4/1

N2 - Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities and economic development and women's emancipation. Data on smoking were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries. For each country, age group (25-39, 40-59 and 60+ years), educational level (4 standard levels), and cumulative ever-smoking rates were calculated as the proportion of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years who were less educated were less likely to have ever smoked in all countries, except Norway and England. The size of inequalities varied considerably between countries and reversed within three age groups. For women 25-39 years, the association of ever-smoking rates with GDP was positive, especially for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion of smoking in different ways for more and less educated women.

AB - Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities and economic development and women's emancipation. Data on smoking were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries. For each country, age group (25-39, 40-59 and 60+ years), educational level (4 standard levels), and cumulative ever-smoking rates were calculated as the proportion of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years who were less educated were less likely to have ever smoked in all countries, except Norway and England. The size of inequalities varied considerably between countries and reversed within three age groups. For women 25-39 years, the association of ever-smoking rates with GDP was positive, especially for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion of smoking in different ways for more and less educated women.

KW - Rygning

KW - Social ulighed

KW - Smoking

KW - Socio-economic inequalities

KW - Economic development

KW - Female ever-smoking

U2 - 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.01.007

DO - 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.01.007

M3 - Journal article

VL - 68

SP - 1271

EP - 1278

JO - Social Science & Medicine

JF - Social Science & Medicine

SN - 0277-9536

IS - 7

ER -