The urea-extractable proteins from the abdominal cuticle of mature locusts Locusta migratoria, have been characterized by two-dimensional electrophoresis and by amino acid analysis of purified components. The existence of sex-related differences in protein composition was confirmed in mature cuticle, whereas such differences are absent in pharate cuticle. The proteins from mature cuticle are mainly acidic, while the pharate proteins are mainly basic. The deposition of the proteins characteristic for mature cuticle starts within a few days after ecdysis; the different proteins do not appear simultaneously in the extracts. It is suggested that the pharate proteins represent exocuticle, that the proteins extracted from mature cuticle are derived from endocuticle, and that the differences between the two groups of proteins will give the two layers different physical properties.