Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection?

Peter Aaby, Soren Wengel Mogensen, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine S. Benn

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

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Background: Whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6-35 months. Methods: In the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age. From June 1981, routine vaccinations were offered at the weighing sessions. We calculated mortality hazard ratio (HR) for DTP-vaccinated and DTP-unvaccinated children aged 6-35 months using Cox proportional hazard models. Including this study, the introduction of DTP vaccine and child mortality has been studied in three studies; we made a meta-estimate of these studies. Results: At the first weighing session after the introduction of vaccines, 6-35-monthold children who received DTP vaccination had better weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) than children who did not receive DTP; one unit increase in WAZ was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% CI = 1.13-1.55) for receiving DTP vaccination. Though lower mortality compared with not being DTP-vaccinated was, therefore, expected, DTP vaccination was associated with a non-significant trend in the opposite direction, the HR being 2.22 (0.82-6.04) adjusted for WAZ. In a sensitivity analysis, including all children weighed at least once before the vaccination program started, DTP (+/- OPV) as the most recent vaccination compared with live vaccines or no vaccine was associated with a HR of 1.89 (1.00-3.55). In the three studies of the introduction of DTP in rural and urban Guinea-Bissau, DTP-vaccinated children had an HR of 2.14 (1.42-3.23) compared to DTP-unvaccinated children; this effect was separately significant for girls [HR = 2.60 (1.57-4.32)], but not for boys [HR = 1.71 (0.99-2.93)] (test for interaction p = 0.27). Conclusion: Although having better nutritional status and being protected against three infections, 635 months old DTP-vaccinated children tended to have higher mortality than DTP-unvaccinated children. All studies of the introduction of DTP have found increased overall mortality.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer79
TidsskriftFrontiers in Public Health
Vol/bind6
Antal sider10
ISSN2296-2565
DOI
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2018

Fingeraftryk

Guinea-Bissau
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine
Diphtheria
Whooping Cough
Child Mortality
Weights and Measures

Citer dette

@article{91d87f52098740578a7240ad60f403e0,
title = "Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection?",
abstract = "Background: Whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6-35 months. Methods: In the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age. From June 1981, routine vaccinations were offered at the weighing sessions. We calculated mortality hazard ratio (HR) for DTP-vaccinated and DTP-unvaccinated children aged 6-35 months using Cox proportional hazard models. Including this study, the introduction of DTP vaccine and child mortality has been studied in three studies; we made a meta-estimate of these studies. Results: At the first weighing session after the introduction of vaccines, 6-35-monthold children who received DTP vaccination had better weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) than children who did not receive DTP; one unit increase in WAZ was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95{\%} CI = 1.13-1.55) for receiving DTP vaccination. Though lower mortality compared with not being DTP-vaccinated was, therefore, expected, DTP vaccination was associated with a non-significant trend in the opposite direction, the HR being 2.22 (0.82-6.04) adjusted for WAZ. In a sensitivity analysis, including all children weighed at least once before the vaccination program started, DTP (+/- OPV) as the most recent vaccination compared with live vaccines or no vaccine was associated with a HR of 1.89 (1.00-3.55). In the three studies of the introduction of DTP in rural and urban Guinea-Bissau, DTP-vaccinated children had an HR of 2.14 (1.42-3.23) compared to DTP-unvaccinated children; this effect was separately significant for girls [HR = 2.60 (1.57-4.32)], but not for boys [HR = 1.71 (0.99-2.93)] (test for interaction p = 0.27). Conclusion: Although having better nutritional status and being protected against three infections, 635 months old DTP-vaccinated children tended to have higher mortality than DTP-unvaccinated children. All studies of the introduction of DTP have found increased overall mortality.",
keywords = "bias in vaccine studies, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, heterologous effects, measles vaccine, non-specific effects of vaccines, oral polio vaccine",
author = "Peter Aaby and Mogensen, {Soren Wengel} and Amabelia Rodrigues and Benn, {Christine S.}",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
doi = "10.3389/fpubh.2018.00079",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Frontiers in Public Health",
issn = "2296-2565",
publisher = "Frontiers Media",

}

Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau : A Time for Reflection? / Aaby, Peter; Mogensen, Soren Wengel; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S.

I: Frontiers in Public Health, Bind 6, 79, 03.2018.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau

T2 - A Time for Reflection?

AU - Aaby, Peter

AU - Mogensen, Soren Wengel

AU - Rodrigues, Amabelia

AU - Benn, Christine S.

PY - 2018/3

Y1 - 2018/3

N2 - Background: Whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6-35 months. Methods: In the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age. From June 1981, routine vaccinations were offered at the weighing sessions. We calculated mortality hazard ratio (HR) for DTP-vaccinated and DTP-unvaccinated children aged 6-35 months using Cox proportional hazard models. Including this study, the introduction of DTP vaccine and child mortality has been studied in three studies; we made a meta-estimate of these studies. Results: At the first weighing session after the introduction of vaccines, 6-35-monthold children who received DTP vaccination had better weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) than children who did not receive DTP; one unit increase in WAZ was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% CI = 1.13-1.55) for receiving DTP vaccination. Though lower mortality compared with not being DTP-vaccinated was, therefore, expected, DTP vaccination was associated with a non-significant trend in the opposite direction, the HR being 2.22 (0.82-6.04) adjusted for WAZ. In a sensitivity analysis, including all children weighed at least once before the vaccination program started, DTP (+/- OPV) as the most recent vaccination compared with live vaccines or no vaccine was associated with a HR of 1.89 (1.00-3.55). In the three studies of the introduction of DTP in rural and urban Guinea-Bissau, DTP-vaccinated children had an HR of 2.14 (1.42-3.23) compared to DTP-unvaccinated children; this effect was separately significant for girls [HR = 2.60 (1.57-4.32)], but not for boys [HR = 1.71 (0.99-2.93)] (test for interaction p = 0.27). Conclusion: Although having better nutritional status and being protected against three infections, 635 months old DTP-vaccinated children tended to have higher mortality than DTP-unvaccinated children. All studies of the introduction of DTP have found increased overall mortality.

AB - Background: Whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6-35 months. Methods: In the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age. From June 1981, routine vaccinations were offered at the weighing sessions. We calculated mortality hazard ratio (HR) for DTP-vaccinated and DTP-unvaccinated children aged 6-35 months using Cox proportional hazard models. Including this study, the introduction of DTP vaccine and child mortality has been studied in three studies; we made a meta-estimate of these studies. Results: At the first weighing session after the introduction of vaccines, 6-35-monthold children who received DTP vaccination had better weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) than children who did not receive DTP; one unit increase in WAZ was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% CI = 1.13-1.55) for receiving DTP vaccination. Though lower mortality compared with not being DTP-vaccinated was, therefore, expected, DTP vaccination was associated with a non-significant trend in the opposite direction, the HR being 2.22 (0.82-6.04) adjusted for WAZ. In a sensitivity analysis, including all children weighed at least once before the vaccination program started, DTP (+/- OPV) as the most recent vaccination compared with live vaccines or no vaccine was associated with a HR of 1.89 (1.00-3.55). In the three studies of the introduction of DTP in rural and urban Guinea-Bissau, DTP-vaccinated children had an HR of 2.14 (1.42-3.23) compared to DTP-unvaccinated children; this effect was separately significant for girls [HR = 2.60 (1.57-4.32)], but not for boys [HR = 1.71 (0.99-2.93)] (test for interaction p = 0.27). Conclusion: Although having better nutritional status and being protected against three infections, 635 months old DTP-vaccinated children tended to have higher mortality than DTP-unvaccinated children. All studies of the introduction of DTP have found increased overall mortality.

KW - bias in vaccine studies

KW - diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine

KW - heterologous effects

KW - measles vaccine

KW - non-specific effects of vaccines

KW - oral polio vaccine

U2 - 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00079

DO - 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00079

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29616207

VL - 6

JO - Frontiers in Public Health

JF - Frontiers in Public Health

SN - 2296-2565

M1 - 79

ER -