OBJECTIVE: To assess prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG scores in patients with advanced and metastatic prostate cancer at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with triptorelin 22.5 mg, and analyse these scores in patient-groups defined by different disease characteristics.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Triptocare study was a prospective, open-label, multicentre, single-arm, Phase III study of triptorelin 22.5 mg in men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, who were naïve to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). The primary objective was to model the urinary PCA3 change at 6 months, according to baseline variables. Other outcome measures included urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores and statuses, and serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after initiation of ADT. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events and changes in laboratory parameters.
RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 322 patients; 39 (12.1%) had non-assessable PCA3 scores at baseline, and 109/322 (33.9%), 215/313 (68.7%) and 232/298 (77.9%) had non-assessable PCA3 scores at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Baseline Gleason score was the only variable associated with non-assessability of PCA3 score at 6 months (P = 0.017) - the hazard of having a non-assessable PCA3 score at 6 months was 1.824-fold higher (95% confidence interval 1.186-2.805) in patients with a Gleason score ≥8 vs those with a Gleason score ≤6. The median PCA3 scores at baseline were significantly higher in patients aged ≥65 years vs those aged <65 years and in patients with a serum PSA level <100 ng/mL vs those with serum PSA level of >200 ng/mL. The median PCA3 score was significantly lower in patients with metastasis than in patients with no metastasis or unknown metastasis status. TMPRSS2-ERG scores ≥35 were considered positive (n = 149 [51.6%]). Age, presence of metastasis, PSA level and Gleason score at baseline were not associated with a significant difference in the proportion of TMPRSS2-ERG-positive scores. The median serum PSA levels decreased from 45.5 ng/mL at baseline to 1.2 ng/mL after 6 months, and as expected, >90% of patients achieved castrate levels of testosterone (<50 ng/dL) at 1, 3, and 6 months during triptorelin treatment. The safety profile reported from this study is consistent with the known safety profile of triptorelin.
CONCLUSION: These data from the Triptocare study suggest that urinary PCA3 or TMPRSS2-ERG score are not reliable markers of cancer stage in advanced prostate cancer. Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores do not appear to be useful in assessing response to ADT in advanced prostate cancer, with most patients having non-assessable scores after 6 months of treatment.