Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

Peter B Skals, Anders Krabek, Per Henning Nielsen, Henrik Wenzel

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly and efficient operations compared to the conventional methods. The aims of the present study has been to investigate whether the enzyme technology is a more environmentally sound alternative than the conventional ways of producing paper. The study addresses five enzyme applications by quantitative means and discusses the environmental potential of a range of other enzyme applications  by qualitative means.

LCA is used as analytical tool and modelling is facilitated in SimaPro software. Foreground LCA data are production/ company specific and collected from P&P technology service providers, specific P&P companies and P&P researchers. The background data on energy systems, auxiliary chemicals, etc. are primarily taken from the ecoinvent database.

The study shows that fossil energy consumption and potential environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical smog formation) induced by enzyme production are low compared with the impacts that they save when applied in bleach boosting, refining, pitch control, deinking, and stickies control.

The general explanation is that small amounts of enzyme provide the same function as large amounts of chemicals and that enzymatic processes generally require less fossil energy inputs than conventional processes. Data quality  assessments and sensitivity analyses indicate that this observation is robust for all processes except deinking, although the results are subject to uncertainty and much variation.

The environmental improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given more attention in, for instance, 'Best Available Technology' notes within the framework of the European Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC).
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftInternational Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Vol/bind13
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)124-132
Antal sider9
ISSN0948-3349
StatusUdgivet - 2008

Fingeraftryk

pulp and paper industry
environmental assessment
enzyme
industry
fossil
energy
nutrient enrichment
data quality
pollution control
acidification
global warming
environmental impact
penetration
software
market
modeling
chemical

Emneord

  • LCA
  • livscyklusvurdering
  • papirfremstilling
  • blegning
  • afsværtning
  • enzymatiske processer

Citer dette

Skals, Peter B ; Krabek, Anders ; Nielsen, Per Henning ; Wenzel, Henrik. / Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry. I: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 2008 ; Bind 13, Nr. 2. s. 124-132.
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Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry. / Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning; Wenzel, Henrik.

I: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Bind 13, Nr. 2, 2008, s. 124-132.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

AU - Skals, Peter B

AU - Krabek, Anders

AU - Nielsen, Per Henning

AU - Wenzel, Henrik

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly and efficient operations compared to the conventional methods. The aims of the present study has been to investigate whether the enzyme technology is a more environmentally sound alternative than the conventional ways of producing paper. The study addresses five enzyme applications by quantitative means and discusses the environmental potential of a range of other enzyme applications  by qualitative means.LCA is used as analytical tool and modelling is facilitated in SimaPro software. Foreground LCA data are production/ company specific and collected from P&P technology service providers, specific P&P companies and P&P researchers. The background data on energy systems, auxiliary chemicals, etc. are primarily taken from the ecoinvent database.The study shows that fossil energy consumption and potential environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical smog formation) induced by enzyme production are low compared with the impacts that they save when applied in bleach boosting, refining, pitch control, deinking, and stickies control.The general explanation is that small amounts of enzyme provide the same function as large amounts of chemicals and that enzymatic processes generally require less fossil energy inputs than conventional processes. Data quality  assessments and sensitivity analyses indicate that this observation is robust for all processes except deinking, although the results are subject to uncertainty and much variation.The environmental improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given more attention in, for instance, 'Best Available Technology' notes within the framework of the European Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC).

AB - The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly and efficient operations compared to the conventional methods. The aims of the present study has been to investigate whether the enzyme technology is a more environmentally sound alternative than the conventional ways of producing paper. The study addresses five enzyme applications by quantitative means and discusses the environmental potential of a range of other enzyme applications  by qualitative means.LCA is used as analytical tool and modelling is facilitated in SimaPro software. Foreground LCA data are production/ company specific and collected from P&P technology service providers, specific P&P companies and P&P researchers. The background data on energy systems, auxiliary chemicals, etc. are primarily taken from the ecoinvent database.The study shows that fossil energy consumption and potential environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical smog formation) induced by enzyme production are low compared with the impacts that they save when applied in bleach boosting, refining, pitch control, deinking, and stickies control.The general explanation is that small amounts of enzyme provide the same function as large amounts of chemicals and that enzymatic processes generally require less fossil energy inputs than conventional processes. Data quality  assessments and sensitivity analyses indicate that this observation is robust for all processes except deinking, although the results are subject to uncertainty and much variation.The environmental improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given more attention in, for instance, 'Best Available Technology' notes within the framework of the European Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC).

KW - LCA

KW - livscyklusvurdering

KW - papirfremstilling

KW - blegning

KW - afsværtning

KW - enzymatiske processer

KW - Bleach boosting

KW - deinking

KW - enzyme assisted processing

M3 - Journal article

VL - 13

SP - 124

EP - 132

JO - International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

JF - International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

SN - 0948-3349

IS - 2

ER -