Endogenous glucose production increases in response to metformin treatment in the glycogen-depleted state in humans: a randomised trial

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Resumé

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is believed to reduce glucose levels primarily by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Recent data indicate that metformin antagonises glucagon-dependent glucose output, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms protect against hypoglycaemia. Here, we examined the effect of metformin on glucose metabolism in humans after a glycogen-depleting fast and the role of reduced-function alleles in OCT1 (also known as SLC22A1).

METHODS: In a randomised, crossover trial, healthy individuals with or without reduced-function alleles in OCT1 were fasted for 42 h twice, either with or without prior treatment with 1 g metformin twice daily. Participants were recruited from the Pharmacogenomics Biobank of the University of Southern Denmark. Treatment allocation was generated by the Good Clinical Practice Unit, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Variables of whole-body glucose metabolism were assessed using [3-(3)H]glucose, indirect calorimetry and measurement of substrates and counter-regulatory hormones. The primary outcome was endogenous glucose production (EGP).

RESULTS: Thirty-seven individuals were randomised. Thirty-four completed the study (12 had none, 13 had one and nine had two reduced-function alleles in OCT1). Three were excluded from the analysis because of early dropout. Metformin significantly stimulated glucose disposal rates and non-oxidative glucose metabolism with no effect on glucose oxidation. This increase in glucose utilisation was explained by a concomitant increase in glycolytic flux and accompanied by increased EGP, most likely mediated by increased plasma lactate, glucagon and cortisol levels. There was no effect of reduced-function OCT1 alleles on any of these measures. All individuals completed the glycogen-depleting fast without hypoglycaemia.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin stimulates glycolytic glucose utilisation and lactate production in the glycogen-depleted state. This may trigger a rise in glucose counter-regulatory hormones and subsequently an increase in EGP, which protects against hypoglycaemia.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400191 FUNDING: : Danish Research Council for Health and Disease (0602-02695B) and Odense University Hospital Free Research Fund, 2012.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDiabetologia
Vol/bind58
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)2494-2502
ISSN0012-186X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 14. aug. 2015

Fingeraftryk

Alleles
Hypoglycemia
Denmark
Glucagon
Lactic Acid
Hormones
Pharmacogenetics
Research
Cross-Over Studies
Liver
Health

Citer dette

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title = "Endogenous glucose production increases in response to metformin treatment in the glycogen-depleted state in humans: a randomised trial",
abstract = "AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is believed to reduce glucose levels primarily by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Recent data indicate that metformin antagonises glucagon-dependent glucose output, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms protect against hypoglycaemia. Here, we examined the effect of metformin on glucose metabolism in humans after a glycogen-depleting fast and the role of reduced-function alleles in OCT1 (also known as SLC22A1).METHODS: In a randomised, crossover trial, healthy individuals with or without reduced-function alleles in OCT1 were fasted for 42 h twice, either with or without prior treatment with 1 g metformin twice daily. Participants were recruited from the Pharmacogenomics Biobank of the University of Southern Denmark. Treatment allocation was generated by the Good Clinical Practice Unit, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Variables of whole-body glucose metabolism were assessed using [3-(3)H]glucose, indirect calorimetry and measurement of substrates and counter-regulatory hormones. The primary outcome was endogenous glucose production (EGP).RESULTS: Thirty-seven individuals were randomised. Thirty-four completed the study (12 had none, 13 had one and nine had two reduced-function alleles in OCT1). Three were excluded from the analysis because of early dropout. Metformin significantly stimulated glucose disposal rates and non-oxidative glucose metabolism with no effect on glucose oxidation. This increase in glucose utilisation was explained by a concomitant increase in glycolytic flux and accompanied by increased EGP, most likely mediated by increased plasma lactate, glucagon and cortisol levels. There was no effect of reduced-function OCT1 alleles on any of these measures. All individuals completed the glycogen-depleting fast without hypoglycaemia.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin stimulates glycolytic glucose utilisation and lactate production in the glycogen-depleted state. This may trigger a rise in glucose counter-regulatory hormones and subsequently an increase in EGP, which protects against hypoglycaemia.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400191 FUNDING: : Danish Research Council for Health and Disease (0602-02695B) and Odense University Hospital Free Research Fund, 2012.",
author = "Christensen, {Mette Marie H} and Kurt H{\o}jlund and Ole Hother-Nielsen and Stage, {Tore B} and Per Damkier and Henning Beck-Nielsen and Kim Br{\o}sen",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Endogenous glucose production increases in response to metformin treatment in the glycogen-depleted state in humans

T2 - a randomised trial

AU - Christensen, Mette Marie H

AU - Højlund, Kurt

AU - Hother-Nielsen, Ole

AU - Stage, Tore B

AU - Damkier, Per

AU - Beck-Nielsen, Henning

AU - Brøsen, Kim

PY - 2015/8/14

Y1 - 2015/8/14

N2 - AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is believed to reduce glucose levels primarily by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Recent data indicate that metformin antagonises glucagon-dependent glucose output, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms protect against hypoglycaemia. Here, we examined the effect of metformin on glucose metabolism in humans after a glycogen-depleting fast and the role of reduced-function alleles in OCT1 (also known as SLC22A1).METHODS: In a randomised, crossover trial, healthy individuals with or without reduced-function alleles in OCT1 were fasted for 42 h twice, either with or without prior treatment with 1 g metformin twice daily. Participants were recruited from the Pharmacogenomics Biobank of the University of Southern Denmark. Treatment allocation was generated by the Good Clinical Practice Unit, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Variables of whole-body glucose metabolism were assessed using [3-(3)H]glucose, indirect calorimetry and measurement of substrates and counter-regulatory hormones. The primary outcome was endogenous glucose production (EGP).RESULTS: Thirty-seven individuals were randomised. Thirty-four completed the study (12 had none, 13 had one and nine had two reduced-function alleles in OCT1). Three were excluded from the analysis because of early dropout. Metformin significantly stimulated glucose disposal rates and non-oxidative glucose metabolism with no effect on glucose oxidation. This increase in glucose utilisation was explained by a concomitant increase in glycolytic flux and accompanied by increased EGP, most likely mediated by increased plasma lactate, glucagon and cortisol levels. There was no effect of reduced-function OCT1 alleles on any of these measures. All individuals completed the glycogen-depleting fast without hypoglycaemia.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin stimulates glycolytic glucose utilisation and lactate production in the glycogen-depleted state. This may trigger a rise in glucose counter-regulatory hormones and subsequently an increase in EGP, which protects against hypoglycaemia.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400191 FUNDING: : Danish Research Council for Health and Disease (0602-02695B) and Odense University Hospital Free Research Fund, 2012.

AB - AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is believed to reduce glucose levels primarily by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Recent data indicate that metformin antagonises glucagon-dependent glucose output, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms protect against hypoglycaemia. Here, we examined the effect of metformin on glucose metabolism in humans after a glycogen-depleting fast and the role of reduced-function alleles in OCT1 (also known as SLC22A1).METHODS: In a randomised, crossover trial, healthy individuals with or without reduced-function alleles in OCT1 were fasted for 42 h twice, either with or without prior treatment with 1 g metformin twice daily. Participants were recruited from the Pharmacogenomics Biobank of the University of Southern Denmark. Treatment allocation was generated by the Good Clinical Practice Unit, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Variables of whole-body glucose metabolism were assessed using [3-(3)H]glucose, indirect calorimetry and measurement of substrates and counter-regulatory hormones. The primary outcome was endogenous glucose production (EGP).RESULTS: Thirty-seven individuals were randomised. Thirty-four completed the study (12 had none, 13 had one and nine had two reduced-function alleles in OCT1). Three were excluded from the analysis because of early dropout. Metformin significantly stimulated glucose disposal rates and non-oxidative glucose metabolism with no effect on glucose oxidation. This increase in glucose utilisation was explained by a concomitant increase in glycolytic flux and accompanied by increased EGP, most likely mediated by increased plasma lactate, glucagon and cortisol levels. There was no effect of reduced-function OCT1 alleles on any of these measures. All individuals completed the glycogen-depleting fast without hypoglycaemia.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin stimulates glycolytic glucose utilisation and lactate production in the glycogen-depleted state. This may trigger a rise in glucose counter-regulatory hormones and subsequently an increase in EGP, which protects against hypoglycaemia.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400191 FUNDING: : Danish Research Council for Health and Disease (0602-02695B) and Odense University Hospital Free Research Fund, 2012.

U2 - 10.1007/s00125-015-3733-2

DO - 10.1007/s00125-015-3733-2

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 26271344

VL - 58

SP - 2494

EP - 2502

JO - Diabetologia

JF - Diabetologia

SN - 0012-186X

IS - 1

ER -