Dynamic Mode Decomposition of Multiphoton and Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy Data for Analysis of Fluorescent Probes in Cellular Membranes

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Abstract

An analysis of the membrane organization and intracellular trafficking of lipids often relies on multiphoton (MP) and super-resolution microscopy of fluorescent lipid probes. A disadvantage of particularly intrinsically fluorescent lipid probes, such as the cholesterol and ergosterol analogue, dehydroergosterol (DHE), is their low MP absorption cross-section, resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in live-cell imaging. Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy of membrane probes like Nile Red enables one to resolve membrane features beyond the diffraction limit but exposes the sample to a lot of excitation light and suffers from a low SNR and photobleaching. Here, dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and its variant, higher-order DMD (HoDMD), are applied to efficiently reconstruct and denoise the MP and STED microscopy data of lipid probes, allowing for an improved visualization of the membranes in cells. HoDMD also allows us to decompose and reconstruct two-photon polarimetry images of TopFluor-cholesterol in model and cellular membranes. Finally, DMD is shown to not only reconstruct and denoise 3D-STED image stacks of Nile Red-labeled cells but also to predict unseen image frames, thereby allowing for interpolation images along the optical axis. This important feature of DMD can be used to reduce the number of image acquisitions, thereby minimizing the light exposure of biological samples without compromising image quality. Thus, DMD as a computational tool enables gentler live-cell imaging of fluorescent probes in cellular membranes by MP and STED microscopy.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftSensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Vol/bind24
Udgave nummer7
ISSN1424-8220
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 25. mar. 2024

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