Characterization of molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic β-cell function in relation to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is incomplete, especially with respect to global response in the nuclear environment. We focus on the characterization of proteins in the nuclear environment of β-cells after brief, high glucose stimulation. We compared purified nuclei derived from β-cells stimulated with 17 mM glucose for 0, 2, and 5 min using quantitative proteomics, a time frame that most likely does not result in translation of new protein in the cell. Among the differentially regulated proteins, we identified 20 components of the nuclear organization processes, including nuclear pore organization, ribonucleoprotein complex, and pre-mRNA transcription. We found alteration of the nuclear pore complex, together with calcium/calmodulin-binding chaperones that facilitate protein and RNA import or export to/from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Putative insulin mRNA transcription-associated factors were identified among the regulated proteins, and they were cross-validated by Western blotting and confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Collectively, our data suggest that protein translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is an important process, highly involved in the initial molecular mechanism underlying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells.