Dose comparison of robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) vs IMRT and VMAT photon plans for testicular seminoma

Heidi S. Rønde*, Camilla Kronborg, Morten Høyer, Jolanta Hansen, Malene Eppler Bak, Søren Nielsen Agergaard, Anne Birgitte Als, Mads Agerbæk, Jakob Lauritsen, Peter Meidahl Petersen, Lars Dysager, Jesper F. Kallehauge


Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


Background: Patients with stage II seminoma have traditionally been treated with photons to the retroperitoneal and iliac space, which leads to a substantial dose bath to abdominal and pelvic organs at risk (OAR). As these patients are young and with excellent prognosis, reducing dose to OAR and thereby the risk of secondary cancer is of utmost importance. We compared IMPT to opposing IMRT fields and VMAT, assessing dose to OAR and both overall and organ-specific secondary cancer risk. Material and methods: A comparative treatment planning study was conducted on planning CT-scans from ten patients with stage II seminoma, treated with photons to a ‘dog-leg’ field with doses ranging from 20 to 25 Gy and a 10 Gy sequential boost to the metastatic lymph node(s). Photon plans were either 3–4 field IMRT (Eclipse) or 1–2 arc VMAT (Pinnacle). Proton plans used robust (5 mm; 3.5%) IMPT (Eclipse), multi field optimization with 3 posterior fields supplemented by 2 anterior fields at the level of the iliac vessels. Thirty plans were generated. Mean doses to OARs were compared for IMRT vs IMPT and VMAT vs IMPT. The risk of secondary cancer was calculated according to the model described by Schneider, using excess absolute risk (EAR, per 10,000 persons per year) for body outline, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, bowel, bladder and spinal cord. Results: Mean doses to all OARs were significantly lower with IMPT except similar kidney (IMRT) and spinal cord (VMAT) doses. The relative EAR for body outline was 0.59 for IMPT/IMRT (p <.05) and 0.33 for IMPT/VMAT (p <.05). Organ specific secondary cancer risk was also lower for IMPT except for pancreas and duodenum. Conclusion: Proton therapy reduced radiation dose to OAR compared to both IMRT and VMAT plans, and potentially reduce the risk of secondary cancer both overall and for most OAR.

TidsskriftActa Oncologica
Udgave nummer10
Sider (fra-til)1222-1229
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2023


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