Diagnosis and Incidence of Congenital Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency in Denmark - a national observational study

Louise Kjersgaard Jakobsen, Rikke Beck Jensen, Niels Holtum Birkebæk, Dorte Hansen, Ann-Margrethe Rønholt Christensen, Maja Carsting Bjerrum, Henrik Thybo Christesen

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CONTEXT: Congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (cCPHD) is the loss of ≥2 pituitary hormones caused by congenital factors.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the national incidence of cCPHD diagnosed before age 18 years and in subgroups.

METHODS: Patients with cCPHD were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and Danish hospital registries in the period 1996-2020. Hospital files were reviewed and incidences calculated using background population data. Incidence was the main outcome measure.

RESULTS: We identified 128 patients with cCPHD; 88 (68.8%) were males. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 6.2 (0.01-19.0) years. The median (25th;75th percentile) number of hormone deficiencies at diagnosis was 3 (3; 4) at <1 year vs 2 (2; 2) at 1-17 years, P < .0001. Abnormal pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings were seen in 70.3% (83/118). For those born in Denmark aged <18 years at diagnosis (n = 116/128) the estimated national incidence (95% CI) of cCPHD was 10.34 (7.79-13.72) per 100 000 births, with an annual incidence rate of 5.74 (4.33-7.62) per million. In subgroup analysis (diagnosis <1 vs 1-17 years), the incidence was highest in the 1-17 years subgroup, 7.97 (5.77-11.00) vs 1.98 (1.39-2.84) per 100 000 births, whereas the annual incidence rate was highest at <1 year, 19.8 (13.9-28.4) vs 4.69 (3.39-6.47) per million births.

CONCLUSION: cCPHD had the highest incidence rate and the most hormone deficiencies in those diagnosed at <1 year. The incidence was highest in the 1-17 years age group, underscoring the need for multiple pituitary hormone investigations throughout childhood and adolescence in children with only 1 hormone deficiency.

TidsskriftThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Udgave nummer10
Sider (fra-til)2475-2485
StatusUdgivet - 18. sep. 2023


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