Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate

Jonathan B. Balewski, Alexander T. Krupp, Anita Gaj, David Peter, Hans Peter Büchler, Robert Löw, Sebastian Hofferberth, Tilman Pfau*

*Kontaktforfatter for dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

The coupling of electrons to matter lies at the heart of our understanding of material properties such as electrical conductivity. Electron-phonon coupling can lead to the formation of a Cooper pair out of two repelling electrons, which forms the basis for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity. Here we study the interaction of a single localized electron with a Bose-Einstein condensate and show that the electron can excite phonons and eventually trigger a collective oscillation of the whole condensate. We find that the coupling is surprisingly strong compared to that of ionic impurities, owing to the more favourable mass ratio. The electron is held in place by a single charged ionic core, forming a Rydberg bound state. This Rydberg electron is described by a wavefunction extending to a size of up to eight micrometres, comparable to the dimensions of the condensate. In such a state, corresponding to a principal quantum number of n = 202, the Rydberg electron is interacting with several tens of thousands of condensed atoms contained within its orbit. We observe surprisingly long lifetimes and finite size effects caused by the electron exploring the outer regions of the condensate. We anticipate future experiments on electron orbital imaging, the investigation of phonon-mediated coupling of single electrons, and applications in quantum optics.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftNature
Vol/bind502
Udgave nummer7473
Sider (fra-til)664-667
ISSN0028-0836
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2013
Udgivet eksterntJa

Fingeraftryk

Bose-Einstein condensates
electrons
condensates
electron orbitals
quantum optics
mass ratios
quantum numbers
micrometers
phonons
superconductivity
actuators
orbits
life (durability)
impurities
oscillations
electrical resistivity

Citer dette

Balewski, J. B., Krupp, A. T., Gaj, A., Peter, D., Büchler, H. P., Löw, R., ... Pfau, T. (2013). Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature, 502(7473), 664-667. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12592
Balewski, Jonathan B. ; Krupp, Alexander T. ; Gaj, Anita ; Peter, David ; Büchler, Hans Peter ; Löw, Robert ; Hofferberth, Sebastian ; Pfau, Tilman. / Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate. I: Nature. 2013 ; Bind 502, Nr. 7473. s. 664-667.
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abstract = "The coupling of electrons to matter lies at the heart of our understanding of material properties such as electrical conductivity. Electron-phonon coupling can lead to the formation of a Cooper pair out of two repelling electrons, which forms the basis for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity. Here we study the interaction of a single localized electron with a Bose-Einstein condensate and show that the electron can excite phonons and eventually trigger a collective oscillation of the whole condensate. We find that the coupling is surprisingly strong compared to that of ionic impurities, owing to the more favourable mass ratio. The electron is held in place by a single charged ionic core, forming a Rydberg bound state. This Rydberg electron is described by a wavefunction extending to a size of up to eight micrometres, comparable to the dimensions of the condensate. In such a state, corresponding to a principal quantum number of n = 202, the Rydberg electron is interacting with several tens of thousands of condensed atoms contained within its orbit. We observe surprisingly long lifetimes and finite size effects caused by the electron exploring the outer regions of the condensate. We anticipate future experiments on electron orbital imaging, the investigation of phonon-mediated coupling of single electrons, and applications in quantum optics.",
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Balewski, JB, Krupp, AT, Gaj, A, Peter, D, Büchler, HP, Löw, R, Hofferberth, S & Pfau, T 2013, 'Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate', Nature, bind 502, nr. 7473, s. 664-667. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12592

Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate. / Balewski, Jonathan B.; Krupp, Alexander T.; Gaj, Anita; Peter, David; Büchler, Hans Peter; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman.

I: Nature, Bind 502, Nr. 7473, 2013, s. 664-667.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate

AU - Balewski, Jonathan B.

AU - Krupp, Alexander T.

AU - Gaj, Anita

AU - Peter, David

AU - Büchler, Hans Peter

AU - Löw, Robert

AU - Hofferberth, Sebastian

AU - Pfau, Tilman

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

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AB - The coupling of electrons to matter lies at the heart of our understanding of material properties such as electrical conductivity. Electron-phonon coupling can lead to the formation of a Cooper pair out of two repelling electrons, which forms the basis for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity. Here we study the interaction of a single localized electron with a Bose-Einstein condensate and show that the electron can excite phonons and eventually trigger a collective oscillation of the whole condensate. We find that the coupling is surprisingly strong compared to that of ionic impurities, owing to the more favourable mass ratio. The electron is held in place by a single charged ionic core, forming a Rydberg bound state. This Rydberg electron is described by a wavefunction extending to a size of up to eight micrometres, comparable to the dimensions of the condensate. In such a state, corresponding to a principal quantum number of n = 202, the Rydberg electron is interacting with several tens of thousands of condensed atoms contained within its orbit. We observe surprisingly long lifetimes and finite size effects caused by the electron exploring the outer regions of the condensate. We anticipate future experiments on electron orbital imaging, the investigation of phonon-mediated coupling of single electrons, and applications in quantum optics.

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Balewski JB, Krupp AT, Gaj A, Peter D, Büchler HP, Löw R et al. Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature. 2013;502(7473):664-667. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12592