Continued expansion of tick-borne pathogens

Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark

Nanna Skaarup Andersen*, Sanne Løkkegaard Larsen, Carsten Riis Olesen, Karin Stiasny, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Per Moestrup Jensen, Sigurdur Skarphédinsson

*Kontaktforfatter for dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a tick-transmitted flavivirus within the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex. The TBE complex is represented by both TBEV and louping ill virus (LIV) in Denmark. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is also transmitted by ticks and is believed to play an essential role in facilitating and aggravating LIV infection in sheep. This study aimed to describe the distribution of TBE complex viruses in Denmark, to establish the possible emergence of new foci and their association with the distribution of A. phagocytophilum. We performed a nationwide seroprevalence study of TBE complex viruses using roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as sentinels and determined the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in roe deer. Danish hunters obtained blood samples from roe deer during the hunting season of 2013-14. The samples were examined for TBEV-specific antibodies by virus neutralization tests (NT). A. phagocytophilum infection was assessed by specific real-time-PCR. The overall seroprevalence of the TBE complex viruses in roe deer was 6.9% (51/736). The positive samples were primarily obtained from a known TBE endemic foci and risk areas identified in previous sentinel studies. However, new TBE complex risk areas were also identified. The overall prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 94.0% (173 PCR-positive of 184 roe deer), which is twice the rate observed ten years ago. These results point to an expansion of these tick-borne diseases geographically and within reservoir populations and, therefore, rationalize the use of sentinel models to monitor changes in transmission of tick-borne diseases and development of new risk areas. We found no association between TBE complex-positive roe deer and the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum, as almost all roe deer were infected. Based on our findings we encourage health care providers to be attentive to tick-borne illnesses such as TBE when treating patients with compatible symptoms.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
Vol/bind10
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)115-123
ISSN1877-959X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2019

Fingeraftryk

Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Tick-borne encephalitis virus
tick-borne encephalitis
Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses
Denmark
Tick-Borne Encephalitis
Capreolus capreolus
ticks
pathogens
Louping ill virus
tick-borne diseases
Seroepidemiologic Studies
seroprevalence
viruses
Flavivirus
Neutralization Tests
Virus Diseases
neutralization tests
Health Personnel
health care workers

Citer dette

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title = "Continued expansion of tick-borne pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark",
abstract = "Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a tick-transmitted flavivirus within the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex. The TBE complex is represented by both TBEV and louping ill virus (LIV) in Denmark. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is also transmitted by ticks and is believed to play an essential role in facilitating and aggravating LIV infection in sheep. This study aimed to describe the distribution of TBE complex viruses in Denmark, to establish the possible emergence of new foci and their association with the distribution of A. phagocytophilum. We performed a nationwide seroprevalence study of TBE complex viruses using roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as sentinels and determined the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in roe deer. Danish hunters obtained blood samples from roe deer during the hunting season of 2013-14. The samples were examined for TBEV-specific antibodies by virus neutralization tests (NT). A. phagocytophilum infection was assessed by specific real-time-PCR. The overall seroprevalence of the TBE complex viruses in roe deer was 6.9{\%} (51/736). The positive samples were primarily obtained from a known TBE endemic foci and risk areas identified in previous sentinel studies. However, new TBE complex risk areas were also identified. The overall prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 94.0{\%} (173 PCR-positive of 184 roe deer), which is twice the rate observed ten years ago. These results point to an expansion of these tick-borne diseases geographically and within reservoir populations and, therefore, rationalize the use of sentinel models to monitor changes in transmission of tick-borne diseases and development of new risk areas. We found no association between TBE complex-positive roe deer and the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum, as almost all roe deer were infected. Based on our findings we encourage health care providers to be attentive to tick-borne illnesses such as TBE when treating patients with compatible symptoms.",
keywords = "Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Capreolus capreolus, Ixodes ricinus, Louping ill virus, Sentinel surveillance, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, Arachnid Vectors/virology, Prevalence, Tick Infestations/veterinary, Male, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Ixodidae/virology, Louping Ill/epidemiology, Deer, Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology, Denmark/epidemiology, Animals, Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolation & purification, Female, Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/isolation & purification, Sentinel Surveillance/veterinary, Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/epidemiology",
author = "Andersen, {Nanna Skaarup} and Larsen, {Sanne L{\o}kkegaard} and Olesen, {Carsten Riis} and Karin Stiasny and Kolmos, {Hans J{\o}rn} and Jensen, {Per Moestrup} and Sigurdur Skarph{\'e}dinsson",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.09.007",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "115--123",
journal = "Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases",
issn = "1877-959X",
publisher = "Heinemann",
number = "1",

}

Continued expansion of tick-borne pathogens : Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark. / Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Larsen, Sanne Løkkegaard; Olesen, Carsten Riis; Stiasny, Karin; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur.

I: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Bind 10, Nr. 1, 01.2019, s. 115-123.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Continued expansion of tick-borne pathogens

T2 - Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Denmark

AU - Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

AU - Larsen, Sanne Løkkegaard

AU - Olesen, Carsten Riis

AU - Stiasny, Karin

AU - Kolmos, Hans Jørn

AU - Jensen, Per Moestrup

AU - Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur

N1 - Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a tick-transmitted flavivirus within the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex. The TBE complex is represented by both TBEV and louping ill virus (LIV) in Denmark. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is also transmitted by ticks and is believed to play an essential role in facilitating and aggravating LIV infection in sheep. This study aimed to describe the distribution of TBE complex viruses in Denmark, to establish the possible emergence of new foci and their association with the distribution of A. phagocytophilum. We performed a nationwide seroprevalence study of TBE complex viruses using roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as sentinels and determined the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in roe deer. Danish hunters obtained blood samples from roe deer during the hunting season of 2013-14. The samples were examined for TBEV-specific antibodies by virus neutralization tests (NT). A. phagocytophilum infection was assessed by specific real-time-PCR. The overall seroprevalence of the TBE complex viruses in roe deer was 6.9% (51/736). The positive samples were primarily obtained from a known TBE endemic foci and risk areas identified in previous sentinel studies. However, new TBE complex risk areas were also identified. The overall prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 94.0% (173 PCR-positive of 184 roe deer), which is twice the rate observed ten years ago. These results point to an expansion of these tick-borne diseases geographically and within reservoir populations and, therefore, rationalize the use of sentinel models to monitor changes in transmission of tick-borne diseases and development of new risk areas. We found no association between TBE complex-positive roe deer and the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum, as almost all roe deer were infected. Based on our findings we encourage health care providers to be attentive to tick-borne illnesses such as TBE when treating patients with compatible symptoms.

AB - Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a tick-transmitted flavivirus within the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex. The TBE complex is represented by both TBEV and louping ill virus (LIV) in Denmark. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is also transmitted by ticks and is believed to play an essential role in facilitating and aggravating LIV infection in sheep. This study aimed to describe the distribution of TBE complex viruses in Denmark, to establish the possible emergence of new foci and their association with the distribution of A. phagocytophilum. We performed a nationwide seroprevalence study of TBE complex viruses using roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as sentinels and determined the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in roe deer. Danish hunters obtained blood samples from roe deer during the hunting season of 2013-14. The samples were examined for TBEV-specific antibodies by virus neutralization tests (NT). A. phagocytophilum infection was assessed by specific real-time-PCR. The overall seroprevalence of the TBE complex viruses in roe deer was 6.9% (51/736). The positive samples were primarily obtained from a known TBE endemic foci and risk areas identified in previous sentinel studies. However, new TBE complex risk areas were also identified. The overall prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 94.0% (173 PCR-positive of 184 roe deer), which is twice the rate observed ten years ago. These results point to an expansion of these tick-borne diseases geographically and within reservoir populations and, therefore, rationalize the use of sentinel models to monitor changes in transmission of tick-borne diseases and development of new risk areas. We found no association between TBE complex-positive roe deer and the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum, as almost all roe deer were infected. Based on our findings we encourage health care providers to be attentive to tick-borne illnesses such as TBE when treating patients with compatible symptoms.

KW - Anaplasma phagocytophilum

KW - Capreolus capreolus

KW - Ixodes ricinus

KW - Louping ill virus

KW - Sentinel surveillance

KW - Tick-borne encephalitis virus

KW - Arachnid Vectors/virology

KW - Prevalence

KW - Tick Infestations/veterinary

KW - Male

KW - Seroepidemiologic Studies

KW - Ixodidae/virology

KW - Louping Ill/epidemiology

KW - Deer

KW - Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology

KW - Denmark/epidemiology

KW - Animals

KW - Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolation & purification

KW - Female

KW - Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/isolation & purification

KW - Sentinel Surveillance/veterinary

KW - Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/epidemiology

U2 - 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.09.007

DO - 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.09.007

M3 - Journal article

VL - 10

SP - 115

EP - 123

JO - Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

JF - Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

SN - 1877-959X

IS - 1

ER -