Collective action in the form of industrial conflict has declined
dramatically since the high tide in the 1970s in Europe. This article
argues that this decline is the result of significant changes in both
economic and institutional factors, influencing the calculations of
employees and of their organizations deliberating collective action.
Institutional factors are especially important for understanding still
persisting inter-country variance, and they point to a novel industrial
conflict calculus for employees. This calculus seems to entail a more
restricted use, but not the withering away of the strike.