The peroxidase-oxidase (PO) reaction involves the oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by molecular oxygen. When both reactants are supplied continuously to a reaction mixture containing the enzyme and a phenolic compound, the reaction will exhibit oscillatory behavior. In fact, the reaction exhibits a zoo of dynamical behaviors ranging from simple periodic oscillations to period-doubled and mixed mode oscillations to quasiperiodicity and chaos. The routes to chaos involve period-doubling, period-adding, and torus bifurcations. The dynamic behaviors in the experimental system can be simulated by detailed semiquantitative models. Previous models of the reaction have omitted the phenolic compound from the reaction scheme. In the current paper, we present new experimental results with the oscillating PO reaction that add to our understanding of its rich dynamics, and we describe a new variant of a previous model, which includes the chemistry of the phenol in the reaction mechanism. This new model can simulate most of the experimental behaviors of the experimental system including the new observations presented here. For example, the model reproduces the two main routes to chaos observed in experiments: (i) a period-doubling scenario, which takes place at low pH, and a period-adding scenario involving mixed mode oscillations (MMOs), which occurs at high pH. Our simulations suggest alternative explanations for the pH-sensitivity of the dynamics. We show that the MMO domains are separated by narrow parameter regions of chaotic behavior or quasiperiodicity. These regions start as tongues of secondary quasiperiodicity and develop into strange attractors through torus breakdown.
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
L.F.O. is indebted to Otte E. Rössler for introducing him to the concept of chaos and for being a lasting inspiration. L.F.O. further acknowledges the Danish Natural Science Research Council (FNU, Grant No DFF−4002-00465) and the University of Southern Denmark for financial support. Finally, we wish to thank Dr. Ursula Kummer and Dr. Sven Sahle for help with the COPASI software.
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