Cerebrospinal fluid findings in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies: Part 1: Results from 163 lumbar punctures in 100 adult patients

Sven Jarius*, Hannah Pellkofer, Nadja Siebert, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Martin W. Hümmert, Marius Ringelstein, Paulus S. Rommer, Ilya Ayzenberg, Klemens Ruprecht, Luisa Klotz, Nasrin Asgari, Tobias Zrzavy, Romana Höftberger, Rafik Tobia, Mathias Buttmann, Kai Fechner, Kathrin Schanda, Martin Weber, Susanna Asseyer, Jürgen HaasChristian Lechner, Ingo Kleiter, Orhan Aktas, Corinna Trebst, Kevin Rostasy, Markus Reindl, Tania Kümpfel, Friedemann Paul, Brigitte Wildemann, in cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS)

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Abstrakt

BACKGROUND: New-generation cell-based assays have demonstrated a robust association of serum autoantibodies to full-length human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) with (mostly recurrent) optic neuritis, myelitis, and brainstem encephalitis, as well as with neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-like or acute-disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like presentations. However, only limited data are yet available on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in MOG-IgG-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM; also termed MOG antibody-associated disease, MOGAD).

OBJECTIVE: To describe systematically the CSF profile in MOG-EM.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytological and biochemical findings (including white cell counts and differentiation; frequency and patterns of oligoclonal bands; IgG/IgM/IgA and albumin concentrations and CSF/serum ratios; intrathecal IgG/IgA/IgM fractions; locally produced IgG/IgM/IgA concentrations; immunoglobulin class patterns; IgG/IgA/IgM reibergrams; Link index; measles/rubella/zoster (MRZ) reaction; other anti-viral and anti-bacterial antibody indices; CSF total protein; CSF L-lactate) from 163 lumbar punctures in 100 adult patients of mainly Caucasian descent with MOG-EM were analyzed retrospectively.

RESULTS: Most strikingly, CSF-restricted oligoclonal IgG bands, a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), were absent in almost 90% of samples (N = 151), and the MRZ reaction, the most specific laboratory marker of MS known so far, in 100% (N = 62). If present, intrathecal IgG (and, more rarely, IgM) synthesis was low, often transient and mostly restricted to acute attacks. CSF WCC was elevated in > 50% of samples (median 31 cells/μl; mostly lymphocytes and monocytes; > 100/μl in 12%). Neutrophils were present in > 40% of samples; activated lymphocytes were found less frequently and eosinophils and/or plasma cells only very rarely (< 4%). Blood-CSF barrier dysfunction (as indicated by an elevated albumin CSF/serum ratio) was present in 48% of all samples and at least once in 55% of all patients (N = 88) tested. The frequency and degree of CSF alterations were significantly higher in patients with acute myelitis than in patients with acute ON and varied strongly depending on attack severity. CSF L-lactate levels correlated significantly with the spinal cord lesion load in patients with acute myelitis (p < 0.0001). Like pleocytosis, blood-CSF barrier dysfunction was present also during remission in a substantial number of patients.

CONCLUSION: MOG-IgG-positive EM is characterized by CSF features that are distinct from those in MS. Our findings are important for the differential diagnosis of MS and MOG-EM and add to the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this newly described autoimmune disease.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer261
TidsskriftJournal of Neuroinflammation
Vol/bind17
Antal sider26
ISSN1742-2094
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 3. sep. 2020

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