CD4 T cells react to local increase of α-synuclein in a pathology-associated variant-dependent manner and modify brain microglia in absence of brain pathology

Mads N Olesen, Josefine R Christiansen, Steen Vang Petersen, Poul Henning Jensen, Wojciech Paslawski, Marina Romero-Ramos, Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

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We have previously shown that immunological processes in the brain during α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration vary depending on the presence or absence of cell death. This suggests that the immune system is able to react differently to the different stages of α-synuclein pathology. However, it was unclear whether these immune changes were governed by brain processes or by a direct immune response to α-synuclein modifications. We have herein locally increased the peripheral concentration of α-synuclein or its pathology-associated variants, nitrated or fibrillar, to characterize the modulation of the CD4 T cell pool by α-synuclein and brain microglia in the absence of any α-synuclein brain pathology. We observed that α-synuclein changed the CD4:CD8 ratio by contracting the CD3+CD4+ T cell pool and reducing the pool of memory Regulatory T cells (Treg). Nitrated α-synuclein induced the expansion of both the CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD4- T cells, while fibrils increased the percentage of Foxp3+ Treg cells and induced anti-α-synuclein antibodies. Furthermore, the activation pattern of CD3+CD4+ T cells was modulated in a variant-dependent manner; while nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein expanded the fraction of activated Treg, all three α-synuclein variants reduced the expression levels of STAT3, CD25 and CD127 on CD3+CD4+ T cells. Additionally, while monomeric α-synuclein increased CD103 expression, the fibrils decreased it, and CCR6 expression was decreased by nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein, indicating that α-synuclein variants affect the homing and tolerance capacities of CD3+CD4+ T cells. Indeed, this correlated with changes in brain microglia phenotype, as determined by FACS analysis, in an α-synuclein variant-specific manner and coincided in time with CD4+ T cell infiltration into brain parenchyma. We have shown that the peripheral immune system is able to sense and react specifically to changes in the local concentration and structure of α-synuclein, which results in variant-specific T cell migration into the brain. This may have a specific repercussion for brain microglia.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummere00513
TidsskriftHeliyon
Vol/bind4
Udgave nummer1
Antal sider43
ISSN2405-8440
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1. jan. 2018
Udgivet eksterntJa

Fingeraftryk

Synucleins
Microglia
Pathology
Immune System
CD4-CD8 Ratio

Citer dette

Olesen, Mads N ; Christiansen, Josefine R ; Petersen, Steen Vang ; Jensen, Poul Henning ; Paslawski, Wojciech ; Romero-Ramos, Marina ; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa. / CD4 T cells react to local increase of α-synuclein in a pathology-associated variant-dependent manner and modify brain microglia in absence of brain pathology. I: Heliyon. 2018 ; Bind 4, Nr. 1.
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title = "CD4 T cells react to local increase of α-synuclein in a pathology-associated variant-dependent manner and modify brain microglia in absence of brain pathology",
abstract = "We have previously shown that immunological processes in the brain during α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration vary depending on the presence or absence of cell death. This suggests that the immune system is able to react differently to the different stages of α-synuclein pathology. However, it was unclear whether these immune changes were governed by brain processes or by a direct immune response to α-synuclein modifications. We have herein locally increased the peripheral concentration of α-synuclein or its pathology-associated variants, nitrated or fibrillar, to characterize the modulation of the CD4 T cell pool by α-synuclein and brain microglia in the absence of any α-synuclein brain pathology. We observed that α-synuclein changed the CD4:CD8 ratio by contracting the CD3+CD4+ T cell pool and reducing the pool of memory Regulatory T cells (Treg). Nitrated α-synuclein induced the expansion of both the CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD4- T cells, while fibrils increased the percentage of Foxp3+ Treg cells and induced anti-α-synuclein antibodies. Furthermore, the activation pattern of CD3+CD4+ T cells was modulated in a variant-dependent manner; while nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein expanded the fraction of activated Treg, all three α-synuclein variants reduced the expression levels of STAT3, CD25 and CD127 on CD3+CD4+ T cells. Additionally, while monomeric α-synuclein increased CD103 expression, the fibrils decreased it, and CCR6 expression was decreased by nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein, indicating that α-synuclein variants affect the homing and tolerance capacities of CD3+CD4+ T cells. Indeed, this correlated with changes in brain microglia phenotype, as determined by FACS analysis, in an α-synuclein variant-specific manner and coincided in time with CD4+ T cell infiltration into brain parenchyma. We have shown that the peripheral immune system is able to sense and react specifically to changes in the local concentration and structure of α-synuclein, which results in variant-specific T cell migration into the brain. This may have a specific repercussion for brain microglia.",
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CD4 T cells react to local increase of α-synuclein in a pathology-associated variant-dependent manner and modify brain microglia in absence of brain pathology. / Olesen, Mads N; Christiansen, Josefine R; Petersen, Steen Vang; Jensen, Poul Henning; Paslawski, Wojciech; Romero-Ramos, Marina; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa.

I: Heliyon, Bind 4, Nr. 1, e00513, 01.01.2018.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - CD4 T cells react to local increase of α-synuclein in a pathology-associated variant-dependent manner and modify brain microglia in absence of brain pathology

AU - Olesen, Mads N

AU - Christiansen, Josefine R

AU - Petersen, Steen Vang

AU - Jensen, Poul Henning

AU - Paslawski, Wojciech

AU - Romero-Ramos, Marina

AU - Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - We have previously shown that immunological processes in the brain during α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration vary depending on the presence or absence of cell death. This suggests that the immune system is able to react differently to the different stages of α-synuclein pathology. However, it was unclear whether these immune changes were governed by brain processes or by a direct immune response to α-synuclein modifications. We have herein locally increased the peripheral concentration of α-synuclein or its pathology-associated variants, nitrated or fibrillar, to characterize the modulation of the CD4 T cell pool by α-synuclein and brain microglia in the absence of any α-synuclein brain pathology. We observed that α-synuclein changed the CD4:CD8 ratio by contracting the CD3+CD4+ T cell pool and reducing the pool of memory Regulatory T cells (Treg). Nitrated α-synuclein induced the expansion of both the CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD4- T cells, while fibrils increased the percentage of Foxp3+ Treg cells and induced anti-α-synuclein antibodies. Furthermore, the activation pattern of CD3+CD4+ T cells was modulated in a variant-dependent manner; while nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein expanded the fraction of activated Treg, all three α-synuclein variants reduced the expression levels of STAT3, CD25 and CD127 on CD3+CD4+ T cells. Additionally, while monomeric α-synuclein increased CD103 expression, the fibrils decreased it, and CCR6 expression was decreased by nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein, indicating that α-synuclein variants affect the homing and tolerance capacities of CD3+CD4+ T cells. Indeed, this correlated with changes in brain microglia phenotype, as determined by FACS analysis, in an α-synuclein variant-specific manner and coincided in time with CD4+ T cell infiltration into brain parenchyma. We have shown that the peripheral immune system is able to sense and react specifically to changes in the local concentration and structure of α-synuclein, which results in variant-specific T cell migration into the brain. This may have a specific repercussion for brain microglia.

AB - We have previously shown that immunological processes in the brain during α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration vary depending on the presence or absence of cell death. This suggests that the immune system is able to react differently to the different stages of α-synuclein pathology. However, it was unclear whether these immune changes were governed by brain processes or by a direct immune response to α-synuclein modifications. We have herein locally increased the peripheral concentration of α-synuclein or its pathology-associated variants, nitrated or fibrillar, to characterize the modulation of the CD4 T cell pool by α-synuclein and brain microglia in the absence of any α-synuclein brain pathology. We observed that α-synuclein changed the CD4:CD8 ratio by contracting the CD3+CD4+ T cell pool and reducing the pool of memory Regulatory T cells (Treg). Nitrated α-synuclein induced the expansion of both the CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD4- T cells, while fibrils increased the percentage of Foxp3+ Treg cells and induced anti-α-synuclein antibodies. Furthermore, the activation pattern of CD3+CD4+ T cells was modulated in a variant-dependent manner; while nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein expanded the fraction of activated Treg, all three α-synuclein variants reduced the expression levels of STAT3, CD25 and CD127 on CD3+CD4+ T cells. Additionally, while monomeric α-synuclein increased CD103 expression, the fibrils decreased it, and CCR6 expression was decreased by nitrated and fibrillar α-synuclein, indicating that α-synuclein variants affect the homing and tolerance capacities of CD3+CD4+ T cells. Indeed, this correlated with changes in brain microglia phenotype, as determined by FACS analysis, in an α-synuclein variant-specific manner and coincided in time with CD4+ T cell infiltration into brain parenchyma. We have shown that the peripheral immune system is able to sense and react specifically to changes in the local concentration and structure of α-synuclein, which results in variant-specific T cell migration into the brain. This may have a specific repercussion for brain microglia.

KW - Immunology

KW - Neuroscience

U2 - 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00513

DO - 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00513

M3 - Journal article

VL - 4

JO - Heliyon

JF - Heliyon

SN - 2405-8440

IS - 1

M1 - e00513

ER -