Calcium Tartrate Tetrahydrate, Case Report of a Novel Human Kidney Stone

Colin Kleinguetl, James C Williams, Samar A Ibrahim, Michel Daudon, Erin T Bird, Marawan M El Tayeb

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Background: Calcium tartrate tetrahydrate has been reported as the main mineral in urinary stones in rats that have significant tartrate in their diet, but in humans, there has been only one mention of calcium tartrate stones in the form of bladder stone, and that case was in Africa. Case Presentation: Patient is a 34-year-old Caucasian male who presented with typical symptoms of nephrolithiasis. CT abd/pelvis (renal stone protocol) revealed a 2 cm nonobstructing stone of the right renal pelvis. Patient underwent an uncomplicated right percutaneous nephrolithotomy and was noted to be stone free after surgery. Stone analysis was difficult with regard to determining composition, but was finally identified as calcium tartrate tetrahydrate. Conclusion: This was an unusual case, as this is the first recorded case of a calcium tartrate tetrahydrate outside of Africa. This type of stone had only been mainly described in rat models with dl-bitartrate in their diet. Our patient was an otherwise healthy, relatively muscular individual with no obvious source for this stone other than a vitamin and amino acid supplement that he takes regularly that contains l-carnitine (as tartrate) and choline (as bitartrate and citrate). The prevalence of this stone type is presently unknown, as stone analysis laboratories have not had the ability to recognize it. Although a connection between the supplement and stone formation is conjecture at this time, we believe this necessitates further investigation.

TidsskriftJournal of Endourology Case Reports
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)192-195
StatusUdgivet - 2017
Udgivet eksterntJa


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