It is now widely recognized that purinergic signaling plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling. One receptor subtype, which has been suggested to be involved in this regulation, is the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R). In the present study, we investigated the effect of P2Y2R overexpression on bone status and bone cell function using a transgenic rat. Three-month-old female transgenic Sprague Dawley rats overexpressing P2Y2R (P2Y2R-Tg) showed higher bone strength of the femoral neck. Histomorphometry showed increase in resorptive surfaces and reduction in mineralizing surfaces. Both mineral apposition rate and thickness of the endocortical osteoid layer were higher in the P2Y2R-Tg rats. μCT analysis showed reduced trabecular thickness and structural model index in P2Y2R-Tg rats. Femoral length was increased in the P2Y2R-Tg rats compared to Wt rats. In vitro, there was an increased formation of osteoclasts, but no change in total resorption in cultures from P2Y2R-Tg rats. The formation of mineralized nodules was significantly reduced in the osteoblastic cultures from P2Y2R-Tg rats. In conclusion, our study suggests that P2Y2R is involved in regulation of bone turnover, due to the effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts and that these effects might be relevant in the regulation of bone growth.