In this work, we investigated the impact of testosterone deficiency and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) expression on lipoprotein metabolism and diet-induced atherosclerosis. CETP transgenic mice and nontransgenic (nTg) littermates were studied 4 weeks after bilateral orchidectomy or sham operation. Castrated mice had an increase in the LDL fraction (+36% for CETP and +79% for nTg mice), whereas the HDL fraction was reduced (-30% for CETP and -11% for nTg mice). Castrated mice presented 1.7-fold higher titers of anti-oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) antibodies than sham-operated controls. Plasma levels of CETP, lipoprotein lipase, and hepatic lipase were not changed by castration. Kinetic studies showed no differences in VLDL secretion rate, VLDL-LDL conversion rate, or number of LDL and HDL receptors. Competition experiments showed lower affinity of LDL from castrated mice for tissue receptors. Diet-induced atherosclerosis studies showed that testosterone deficiency increased by 100%, and CETP expression reduced by 44%, the size of aortic lesion area in castrated mice. In summary, testosterone deficiency increased plasma levels of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-LPs) and anti-OxLDL antibodies, decreased LDL receptor affinity, and doubled the size of diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions. The expression of CETP led to a milder increase of apoB-LPs and reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in testosterone-deficient mice.