Associations of childhood BMI and change in BMI from childhood to adulthood with risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

Dorthe C Pedersen, Lise G Bjerregaard, Ellen A Nohr, Kathleen M Rasmussen, Jennifer L Baker

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Abstrakt

BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight (including obesity) is an established risk factor for gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, it is largely unknown whether body size before adulthood relates to these diseases.

OBJECTIVES: We examined whether childhood BMI (in kg/m2) and changes in BMI from childhood to adulthood were associated with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

METHODS: Using the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, we studied 49,600 women born between 1940 and 1996 with height and weight measurements at 7 y and/or 13 y who had their first singleton birth between ages 18 and 45 y. Women with gestational hypertension (n = 496) and pre-eclampsia (n = 1804) were identified from the International Classification of Disease codes in the Danish National Patient Register. Adult overweight (including obesity) was defined as a BMI ≥25. We used log-linear binomial regression to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs.

RESULTS: At 13 y, as BMI increased above average (z score >0, or the 42nd percentile of the CDC BMI reference), RR for gestational hypertension was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.42, 1.94) and that for pre-eclampsia was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.46, 1.70) per BMI z score. In a subset of 13,160 women, development of overweight from childhood to adulthood and having overweight at both ages were associated with higher risks of the outcomes than in those with a normal BMI at both ages. No increased risks were observed in women whose BMI normalized from childhood to adulthood: RR was 2.04 (95% CI: 0.93, 4.47) for gestational hypertension and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.93) for pre-eclampsia.

CONCLUSIONS: Above-average childhood BMI values and development of overweight from childhood to adulthood were associated with increased risks of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, whereas normalizing BMI from childhood to conception attenuated the risks. Thus, interventions aiming at normalizing BMI in girls with high values may be warranted to help prevent these obstetric diseases.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
ISSN0002-9165
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 16. jul. 2020

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © The Author(s) on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition 2020.

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