Associations between integrase strand-transfer inhibitors and cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV: a multicentre prospective study from the RESPOND cohort consortium

Bastian Neesgaard*, Lauren Greenberg, Jose M. Miró, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Gilles Wandeler, Colette Smith, Stéphane De Wit, Ferdinand Wit, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Castagna, Christian Pradier, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Jörg J. Vehreschild, Anders Sönnerborg, Alain V. Anne, Andrew Carr, Loveleen Bansi-Matharu, Jens D. Lundgren, Harmony GargesFelipe Rogatto, Robert Zangerle, Huldrych F. Günthard, Line D. Rasmussen, Coca Necsoi, Marc van der Valk, Marianna Menozzi, Camilla Muccini, Lars Peters, Amanda Mocroft, Lene Ryom

*Kontaktforfatter

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Abstrakt

Background: Although associations between older antiretroviral drug classes and cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV are well described, there is a paucity of data regarding a possible association with integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). We investigated whether exposure to INSTIs was associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Methods: RESPOND is a prospective, multicentre, collaboration study between 17 pre-existing European and Australian cohorts and includes more than 32 000 adults living with HIV in clinical care after Jan 1, 2012. Individuals were eligible for inclusion in these analyses if they were older than 18 years, had CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load measurements in the 12 months before or within 3 months after baseline (latest of cohort enrolment or Jan 1, 2012), and had no exposure to INSTIs before baseline. These individuals were subsequently followed up to the earliest of the first cardiovascular disease event (ie, myocardial infarction, stroke, or invasive cardiovascular procedure), last follow-up, or Dec 31, 2019. We used multivariable negative binomial regression to assess associations between cardiovascular disease and INSTI exposure (0 months [no exposure] vs >0 to 6 months, >6 to 12 months, >12 to 24 months, >24 to 36 months, and >36 months), adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESPOND is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04090151, and is ongoing. Findings: 29 340 people living with HIV were included in these analyses, of whom 7478 (25·5%) were female, 21 818 (74·4%) were male, and 44 (<1%) were transgender, with a median age of 44·3 years (IQR 36·2–51·3) at baseline. As of Dec 31, 2019, 14 000 (47·7%) of 29 340 participants had been exposed to an INSTI. During a median follow-up of 6·16 years (IQR 3·87–7·52; 160 252 person-years), 748 (2·5%) individuals had a cardiovascular disease event (incidence rate of 4·67 events [95% CI 4·34–5·01] per 1000 person-years of follow-up). The crude cardiovascular disease incidence rate was 4·19 events (3·83–4·57) per 1000 person-years in those with no INSTI exposure, which increased to 8·46 events (6·58–10·71) per 1000 person-years in those with more than 0 months to 6 months of exposure, and gradually decreased with increasing length of exposure, until it decreased to similar levels of no exposure at more than 24 months of exposure (4·25 events [2·89–6·04] per 1000 person-years among those with >24 to 36 months of exposure). Compared with those with no INSTI exposure, the risk of cardiovascular disease was increased in the first 24 months of INSTI exposure and thereafter decreased to levels similar to those never exposed (>0 to 6 months of exposure: adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1·85 [1·44–2·39]; >6 to 12 months of exposure: 1·19 [0·84–1·68]; >12 to 24 months of exposure: 1·46 [1·13–1·88]; >24 to 36 months of exposure: 0·89 [0·62–1·29]; and >36 months of exposure: 0·96 [0·69–1·33]; p<0·0001). Interpretation: Although the potential for unmeasured confounding and channelling bias cannot fully be excluded, INSTIs initiation was associated with an early onset, excess incidence of cardiovascular disease in the first 2 years of exposure, after accounting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors. These early findings call for analyses in other large studies, and the potential underlying mechanisms explored further. Funding: The CHU St Pierre Brussels HIV Cohort, The Austrian HIV Cohort Study, The Australian HIV Observational Database, The AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands National Observational HIV cohort, The EuroSIDA cohort, The Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study, The Georgian National AIDS Health Information System, The Nice HIV Cohort, The ICONA Foundation, The Modena HIV Cohort, The PISCIS Cohort Study, The Swiss HIV Cohort Study, The Swedish InfCare HIV Cohort, The Royal Free HIV Cohort Study, The San Raffaele Scientific Institute, The University Hospital Bonn HIV Cohort and The University of Cologne HIV Cohorts, ViiV Healthcare, and Gilead Sciences.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe Lancet HIV
Vol/bind9
Udgave nummer7
Sider (fra-til)e474-e485
ISSN2352-3018
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jul. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
JMM reports a personal 80:20 research grant from Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain, during 2017–22, and consulting honoraria or research grants from AbbVie, Angelini, Contrafect, Genentech, Gilead Sciences, Jansen, Medtronic, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, and ViiV Healthcare. CS reports payment or honoraria from Gilead for educational presentations. FW reports consulting fees from ViiV Healthcare. JJV reports grants or contracts from Merck, Gilead, Pfizer, Astellas Pharma, Basilea, German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Deutsches Zetrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, University of Bristol, and Rigshospitalet Copenhagen; consulting fees from Pfizer, Gilead, and Shionogi; and payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing, or education events from Merck, Gilead, Pfizer, Astellas Pharma, Basilea, DZIF, University Hospital Freiburg/Congress and Communication, Academy for Infectious Medicine, University Manchester, German Society for Infectious Diseases (DGI), Ärztekammer Nordrhein, University Hospital Aachen, Back Bay Strategies, German Society for Internal Medicine (DGIM), Shionogi, Molecular Health, Netzwerk Universitätsmedizin, Janssen, and NordForsk. AS reports grants from Gilead Sciences (payment to institution) and GSK (payment to institution); and payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing, or education events from Merck. ACar reports grants from ViiV Healthcare and MSD; consulting fees from Gilead Sciences, ViiV healthcare, and MSD; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing, or education events Gilead Sciences; and support for attending meetings or travel from Gilead Sciences, MSD. HG owns stock in GSK and is an employee of ViiV Healthcare. FR is an employee of and has stock options in Gilead Sciences. HG reports grants or contracts from Swiss National Science Foundation (payment made to institution), Yvonne Jacob Foundation (payment made to institution), Gilead Sciences (COVID-19 program; payment made to institution); and participation a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board for Merck, Gilead Sciences, Janssen, ViiV Healthcare, and Novartis. LDR reports payment for conference fee, transport, and accommodation, and participation at meetings held by, Takeda, MSD, Gilead Sciences, and GSK. MvdV reports grants or contracts with ViiV Healthcare (payment made to institution) and Gilead Sciences (payment made to institution); consulting fees from Merck (payment made to institution), ViiV Healthcare (payment made to institution), and Gilead Sciences (payment made to institution); and being a board member for Amsterdam Dinner foundation (unpaid). AM reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing, or education events from ViiV Healthcare and Gilead Sciences; payment for expert testimonial from Eiland and Bonnin; and support for attending meetings and travel from ViiV Healthcare. AP-M reports honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing, or education events from Gilead Sciences. All other authors declare no competing interests.

Funding Information:
The Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD), Austrian HIV Cohort Study (AHIVCOS), CHU Saint-Pierre, EuroSIDA Cohort, Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study, Georgian National AIDS Health Information System (AIDS HIS), Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals (ICONA), Modena HIV Cohort, Nice HIV Cohort, PISCIS Cohort Study, Royal Free Hospital Cohort, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Swedish InfCare HIV Cohort, Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS), AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands Cohort (ATHENA), Royal Free HIV Cohort Study, University Hospital Bonn, and University Hospital Cologne participate in the International Cohort Consortium of Infectious Disease (RESPOND). The full RESPOND study group can be found online and is listed in the appendix (pp 1–2). RESPOND has received funding from ViiV Healthcare and Gilead Sciences. Additional support has been provided by participating cohorts contributing data in-kind or statistical support, or both: AHIVCOS, AHOD, CHU Saint-Pierre, University Hospital Cologne, EuroSIDA, Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study, AIDS HIS, Modena HIV Cohort, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, SHCS, ATHENA, and Royal Free HIV Cohort Study.

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