Background: Testicular microlithiasis and its clinical significance are not fully understood. Testicular microlithiasis and risk factors have been associated with testicular cancer. The role of testicular microlithiasis is investigated.
Purpose: To investigate the association between testicular microlithiasis and socioeconomic and other pre-diagnostic factors.
Material and Methods: All men who had a scrotal ultrasound examination at the Department of Radiology, Vejle Hospital, during 2001-2013 were included. They were categorized as patients with and without testicular microlithiasis and compared with pre-diagnostic data from a nationwide registry. A total of 2404 men (283 [11.8%] with testicular microlithiasis and 2121 [88.2%] without testicular microlithiasis) were included. The association between testicular microlithiasis and pre-diagnostic conditions was investigated with logistic regression.
Results: Overall, we found no statistically significant differences in demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, or testicular diseases in men with and without testicular microlithiasis. Men with testicular microlithiasis had more often been treated for infertility (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-5.24) and testicular torsion (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.34-7.36) compared to men without testicular microlithiasis. We found no association between sexually transmitted diseases and testicular microlithiasis.
Conclusion: Treatment for infertility and torsion was non-significantly associated with testicular microlithiasis and no other association was found. These data do not suggest early exposure is related to testicular microlithiasis.