Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

Jordan A. Carlson, Brian E. Saelens, Jacqueline Kerr, Jasper Schipperijn, Terry L. Conway, Lawrence D. Frank, Jim E. Chapman, Karen Glanz, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


Objectives: To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth.
Methods: Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups.
Results: Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking.
Conclusions: Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability.
TidsskriftHealth & Place
Udgave nummerMarch
Sider (fra-til)1-7
Antal sider7
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2015

Bibliografisk note

Available online 9 January 2015


  • Density
  • Land use
  • Mode share
  • Physical activity
  • Transportation