Antineuronal antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of 104 patients with psychotic disorders compared to 104 individually matched healthy controls

Rose Jeppesen, Anna Christine Nilsson, Nina Vindegaard Sørensen, Sonja Orlovska-Waast, Rune Haubo Bojesen Christensen, Michael Eriksen Benros*


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Background: Antineuronal antibodies can cause psychotic symptoms, particularly NMDAR antibodies; however, studies on the prevalence of antineuronal antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with psychotic disorders compared to matched healthy controls are sparse. Methods: We included 104 patients with a first-time diagnosis of a psychotic disorder within one year prior to inclusion (50 % outpatients) and 104 individually matched healthy controls, all without any known immunological conditions. CSF and serum were tested for IgG antibodies (Abs) against NMDAR NR1-subunit, GAD65, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR1, AMPAR2 and GABAb-receptor B1/B2 using commercial fixed cell-based assays (CBAs) (Euroimmun). Positive samples were retested with CBA twice, and tested with tissue-based assays (TBA). Primary outcomes were the presence of any of the seven anti-neuronal antibodies in CSF or serum. Secondarily, we analyzed the prevalence of each autoantibody. Results: No antineuronal IgG antibodies were consistently found in any CSF sample and NMDAR-antibodies were not consistently present in any of the 208 participants, neither in CSF nor serum. CASPR2-Abs were consistently found in the serum of one patient and one control, and one healthy control, without diabetes, was seropositive for GAD65-Abs. CASPR2 borderline seropositivity was additionally found in one patient and two controls. All samples positive on CBA were negative on TBA. Conclusions: We found no significant differences between patients and controls. Antineuronal IgG antibodies are very rare when screening a broad group of individuals with recent-onset psychotic disorders without other indications of autoimmune encephalitis. Thus, much larger studies are needed to conclude on potential contrasts in prevalence compared to healthy controls.

TidsskriftSchizophrenia Research
Sider (fra-til)39-45
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grants to MEB by the Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant number 7025-00078B ), by an unrestricted grant from The Lundbeck Foundation (grant number R268-2016-3925 ) and from the Psykiatrisk Forskningsfond af 1967. The sponsor had no role in the acquisition of the data, interpretation of the results or the decision to publish the findings.


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