Excessive livestock production in small areas poses a risk of nitrogen release to the environment and thus air and water contamination. Recovery of ammonia is necessary to avoid overfertilization, but manure management of untreated slurry is costly and complex. The authors discuss ammonium fertilizer recovery from manure using membrane processes and physicochemical methods including technology and energy assessments. Currently, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, membrane distillation combined with ultrafiltration, and air stripping are the best choices. The processes rely highly on selection of appropriate pretreatment, as residual particulates will lead to fouling of membranes and stripping towers hence affect the performance greatly.
|Tidsskrift||Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology|
|Status||Udgivet - 1. maj 2015|