Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes?

Tom Stewart, Jasper Schipperijn, Bernhard Snizek, Scott Duncan

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place noticeable burden on participants and processing these data is time consuming and error-prone. Interactive online mapping surveys allow users to draw their own travel routes, and may offer a time and cost-effective alternative; however, these routes are still self-reported, and their true accuracy remains unknown. Methods A total of 196 adolescents drew their usual route to school within an online mapping survey and wore a GPS receiver for 7 days. Individual home-to-school routes were extracted from GPS data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess differences in distance and spatial agreement between routes, and how these varied by mode of travel and other route characteristics. Results GPS-assessed routes were longer than the routes participants drew across all travel modes. Routes travelled actively displayed 12.32% higher agreement compared to those travelled passively (p < 0.01). Taking multiple routes to school (29.9% of participants) reduced the agreement by 10.76% (p < 0.01). Every additional travel mode transition (e.g., during multimodal trips) was associated with 2.20% lower agreement (p < 0.01). In total, 40.7% of participants used more than one travel mode to school over the assessment period. Conclusions Online mapping surveys are a feasible method for route assessment in adolescents, particularly for active travel routes. With the integration of survey questions, there is considerable potential for understanding the intricacies of travel behaviours. However, the self-reporting error seems more pronounced for longer routes, and when multiple travel modes are used. Researchers should consider the advantages (e.g., ease of collection) and disadvantages (e.g., lack of temporal information) when deciding if the data obtainable are sufficient to answer their research questions.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Transport & Health
Vol/bind5
Sider (fra-til)113-122
ISSN2214-1405
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2017

Fingeraftryk

GPS
travel behavior
travel
school
cost

Citer dette

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title = "Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes?",
abstract = "AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place noticeable burden on participants and processing these data is time consuming and error-prone. Interactive online mapping surveys allow users to draw their own travel routes, and may offer a time and cost-effective alternative; however, these routes are still self-reported, and their true accuracy remains unknown. Methods A total of 196 adolescents drew their usual route to school within an online mapping survey and wore a GPS receiver for 7 days. Individual home-to-school routes were extracted from GPS data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess differences in distance and spatial agreement between routes, and how these varied by mode of travel and other route characteristics. Results GPS-assessed routes were longer than the routes participants drew across all travel modes. Routes travelled actively displayed 12.32{\%} higher agreement compared to those travelled passively (p < 0.01). Taking multiple routes to school (29.9{\%} of participants) reduced the agreement by 10.76{\%} (p < 0.01). Every additional travel mode transition (e.g., during multimodal trips) was associated with 2.20{\%} lower agreement (p < 0.01). In total, 40.7{\%} of participants used more than one travel mode to school over the assessment period. Conclusions Online mapping surveys are a feasible method for route assessment in adolescents, particularly for active travel routes. With the integration of survey questions, there is considerable potential for understanding the intricacies of travel behaviours. However, the self-reporting error seems more pronounced for longer routes, and when multiple travel modes are used. Researchers should consider the advantages (e.g., ease of collection) and disadvantages (e.g., lack of temporal information) when deciding if the data obtainable are sufficient to answer their research questions.",
keywords = "Transportation, Physical activity, Routes, Global Positioning System (GPS), Online mapping",
author = "Tom Stewart and Jasper Schipperijn and Bernhard Snizek and Scott Duncan",
year = "2017",
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language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "113--122",
journal = "Journal of Transport & Health",
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Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes? / Stewart, Tom; Schipperijn, Jasper; Snizek, Bernhard; Duncan, Scott.

I: Journal of Transport & Health, Bind 5, 2017, s. 113-122.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes?

AU - Stewart, Tom

AU - Schipperijn, Jasper

AU - Snizek, Bernhard

AU - Duncan, Scott

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place noticeable burden on participants and processing these data is time consuming and error-prone. Interactive online mapping surveys allow users to draw their own travel routes, and may offer a time and cost-effective alternative; however, these routes are still self-reported, and their true accuracy remains unknown. Methods A total of 196 adolescents drew their usual route to school within an online mapping survey and wore a GPS receiver for 7 days. Individual home-to-school routes were extracted from GPS data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess differences in distance and spatial agreement between routes, and how these varied by mode of travel and other route characteristics. Results GPS-assessed routes were longer than the routes participants drew across all travel modes. Routes travelled actively displayed 12.32% higher agreement compared to those travelled passively (p < 0.01). Taking multiple routes to school (29.9% of participants) reduced the agreement by 10.76% (p < 0.01). Every additional travel mode transition (e.g., during multimodal trips) was associated with 2.20% lower agreement (p < 0.01). In total, 40.7% of participants used more than one travel mode to school over the assessment period. Conclusions Online mapping surveys are a feasible method for route assessment in adolescents, particularly for active travel routes. With the integration of survey questions, there is considerable potential for understanding the intricacies of travel behaviours. However, the self-reporting error seems more pronounced for longer routes, and when multiple travel modes are used. Researchers should consider the advantages (e.g., ease of collection) and disadvantages (e.g., lack of temporal information) when deciding if the data obtainable are sufficient to answer their research questions.

AB - AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place noticeable burden on participants and processing these data is time consuming and error-prone. Interactive online mapping surveys allow users to draw their own travel routes, and may offer a time and cost-effective alternative; however, these routes are still self-reported, and their true accuracy remains unknown. Methods A total of 196 adolescents drew their usual route to school within an online mapping survey and wore a GPS receiver for 7 days. Individual home-to-school routes were extracted from GPS data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess differences in distance and spatial agreement between routes, and how these varied by mode of travel and other route characteristics. Results GPS-assessed routes were longer than the routes participants drew across all travel modes. Routes travelled actively displayed 12.32% higher agreement compared to those travelled passively (p < 0.01). Taking multiple routes to school (29.9% of participants) reduced the agreement by 10.76% (p < 0.01). Every additional travel mode transition (e.g., during multimodal trips) was associated with 2.20% lower agreement (p < 0.01). In total, 40.7% of participants used more than one travel mode to school over the assessment period. Conclusions Online mapping surveys are a feasible method for route assessment in adolescents, particularly for active travel routes. With the integration of survey questions, there is considerable potential for understanding the intricacies of travel behaviours. However, the self-reporting error seems more pronounced for longer routes, and when multiple travel modes are used. Researchers should consider the advantages (e.g., ease of collection) and disadvantages (e.g., lack of temporal information) when deciding if the data obtainable are sufficient to answer their research questions.

KW - Transportation

KW - Physical activity

KW - Routes

KW - Global Positioning System (GPS)

KW - Online mapping

U2 - 10.1016/j.jth.2016.10.001

DO - 10.1016/j.jth.2016.10.001

M3 - Journal article

VL - 5

SP - 113

EP - 122

JO - Journal of Transport & Health

JF - Journal of Transport & Health

SN - 2214-1405

ER -