Emissions from idle truck engines are a main source of pollution at container terminals. In this study, we focus on reducing such emission from waiting trucks as well as the related crane operations with a new truck arrival control method that gives individual truck limited time slots for entry. We develop a method to optimize the time slot assignment for individual trucks, aiming at minimizing total emissions from trucks and cranes at import yards. The method applies discrete event simulation to estimate total truck waiting times and crane moving distance, and then applies a genetic algorithm to minimize the generated emissions from these trucks and cranes. The experiment result shows that the truck arrivals should be controlled based on the stacking of import containers, and that such control is necessary for reducing truck idling emissions at a congested container terminal.
Do, N. A. D., Nielsen, I. E., Chen, G., & Nielsen, P. (2016). A simulation-based genetic algorithm approach for reducing emissions from import container pick-up operation at container terminal. Annals of Operations Research, 242(2), 285-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-014-1636-0