Automatic under frequency load shedding schemes need to be carefully designed in order to reduce the risk of widespread system collapse. This paper proposes a centralized hierarchical multi-agent system that coordinates various stages of monitoring and decision making processes. The main contribution is to improve traditional contingency response algorithms such as load shedding schemes, taking advantage of the future smart grid infrastructure. The multi-agent system seeks for a minimum amount of load disconnection in a short period of time, causing the least possible disturbance in the system frequency. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a full electric power system using a real time digital simulator was utilized. The solution was embedded in a real time system, consisting of hardware and software, to test and validate the proposed methodology. In addition, the studied methodology was compared with two other load shedding philosophies through a load shedding metric score. Shedding was carried out in a single step and the amount of disconnected load was close to the dynamic power unbalance. The results show that it is possible to improve the traditional load shedding philosophy schemes and use advanced communication infrastructure, monitoring and embedded processing capabilities to provide better stability and reduce unnecessary load disconnections from the system.
Santos, A. Q., Monaro, R., Coury, D., & Oleskovicz, M. (2019). A new real-time multi-agent system for under frequency load shedding in a smart grid context. Electric Power Systems Research, 174, . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2019.04.029